Presentation on theme: "The Central Processor and Memory"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Central Processor and Memory Chapter 4The Central Processorand Memory
2 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor:executes program instructions andperforms the computer’s processing actions.Integrated Circuits/Chip/Microchip:thousands or millions of transistorsplaced on a small silicon chip.
3 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued) Transistor:An electrical switchcan be in one of two states:open orclosed.Integrating:The process of packing more transistors onto a single chip.
4 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued)
5 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Control Unit The part of the CPUoversees and controls all computer activitiesInstructions:Low level actions to be carried out duringinputprocessingoutputstoragetransmission.
6 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU) part of the CPUperforms arithmetic and logical operations.Logical Operations:Greater Than (>)Less Than (<)Equal To (=)Arithmetic Operations:AdditionSubtractionMultiplicationDivision.
7 Memory Definition Primary Storage Primary Memory Main Memory Internal MemoryRAM:Primary memory holds data temporarily,as the computer executes instructions.
9 Memory Memory Size Bit: On or Off 1 or 0 2 Bits: Four different values: 00, 01, 10, 113 Bits:Eight different values:000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111Byte:8 bits256 different valuesApproximately 200 printable characters.
10 Memory Memory Size Kilobyte (KB or K): 1000 bytes 500 word text file about 3-4KMegabyte (MB):One million bytes.Bitmap 800 X 600 X 24 bits 1.4 MBGigabyte (GB):One billion bytes.Terabyte (TB):One trillion bytes.
11 Memory Memory Size (Continued) How much space?Turing1,000 home directoriesaverage home directory size 250 MBImage2400 X 1800 resolution64,000 colorsDatabase500,000 peoplefirst namelast namephone number
12 Memory RAM and ROM ROM Read-only Memory Memory is persistent even if computer is turned offComputer BIOS is stored on ROM chipBIOS (Basic Input Output System) need so computer can bootRAMRandom-access MemoryRead or WriteMemory is lost when computer is turned offRandom-access any part of the memory can be access in constant time.
13 Memory Flash Memory Flash Memory: Read and Write retains it contents even when electricity is turned off.Currently used inCell phonesDigital CamerasiPods, MP3 playersKey chains
15 Memory Definition Boot: To turn on the computer system let the built-in self-test run.Cold Boot:turned on from an off stateCPU invokes the ROM BIOS boot program, which runsthe power-upself-tests andloads the operating system from disk storage.Warm Boot:In a restart, the BIOS knows the system is already running (data is written in a specific memory location checked by the BIOS) and skips the power-on test.
16 Inside the System Unit Definition Board:A hardware device onto which chips and their related circuitry are placed.System Board (Mother Board):The hardware unit that houses a computer’s processor, memory chips, ports, and add-in boards.
17 Inside the System Unit Processor Chips Microprocessor:The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip.
18 Inside the System Unit Evolution of Intel Pentium Family of Microprocessors
19 Inside the System Unit Intel Microprocessors Intel Celeron ProcessorsDoes NOT have L2 cache, i.e., expensive memory that speeds up performanceIntel Pentium ProcessorsThe StandardIntel Xeon ProcessorsDesigned to work in pairs (dual processors)Intel Itanium Processors64-bit processor
20 Inside the System Unit Evolution of Microprocessors for Macintosh Computers
21 Inside the System Unit Other Microprocessor Chips AMDDigital Equipment Corp.MotorolaMIPS TechnologiesSun Microcomputers
22 Inside the System Unit Memory Chips Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM):A multiple-chip memory card inserted as a unit into a predesignated slot on a computer’s system board.Installed Memory:The amount of memory included by a computer’s manufacturer on its memory board.Maximum Memory:The most memory that a processor can hold.
23 Inside the System Unit Ports A connector through which input/output devices can be plugged into the computer.Expansion Slot:A slot inside a computer that allows a user to add an additional circuit board.
24 Inside the System Unit Universal Serial Bus Universal Serial Bus (USB):A general purpose port that can connect up to 128 devices, and also hot swappable,meaning that devices can be plugged in or unplugged without having to shut down or reboot the system.
25 Inside the System Unit Add-In Boards A board that can be added to a computer to customize its features and capabilities.
27 Inside the System Unit Plug and Play The ability to install devices into a computer when the computer itself makes any necessary internal adjustments.
28 The Processing Sequence The Machine Cycle The four processing steps: fetch, decode, execute, and store.Instruction Cycle (I-cycle):The first two steps (fetch and decode), in which instructions are obtained and translated.Execution Cycle (E-cycle):The last two steps of the machine cycle (execute and store), which produce processing results.
30 The Processing Sequence Registers temporary storage built into the processorcan move data and instructions more quickly than main memory canFour types:Storage RegistersAddress RegistersAccumulatorsGeneral-Purpose Registers
31 Processor Speed Definition Millisecond: One thousandth of a secondMicrosecond: One millionth of a second.Nanosecond: One billionth of a second.Picosecond: One trillionth of a second.
32 Processor Speed Definition (Continued) Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS):The number of instructions the processor can execute per second – a measure of processor speed.Megaflops:Millions of floating point operations per second – a measure of how many detailed arithmetic calculations the computer can perform per second.
34 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) System Clock: A circuit that generates electronic impulses at a fixed rate to synchronize processing activities.Megahertz (MHz): Millions of electric pulses per second – a measure of a computer’s speed.Gigahertz (GHz): Billions of electric pulses per second.
35 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) Bus WidthInput/Output (I/O) bus: A bus (electronic circuit) that moves data into and out of the processor.Data Bus: A bus that moves data between the central processor and memory.Word SizeWord: The number of bits a computer can process at one time.
37 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) Cache Memory:A form of high-speed memory that acts as a temporary holding/processing cell.Coprocessors:A special-purpose chip mounted on a processor board; it is designed to handle common functions quickly and efficiently
38 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) CISC:Complex Instruction Set ComputingIntended to be an improvementComplex instructions require main memoryRISC:Reduced Instruction Set ComputingA return to the old wayCompact instructions need only registers
39 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) Pipelining:A computer starts processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction reaches its next step in the processing cycle.
41 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) Sequential Processing:Processing in which the execution of one instruction is followed by the execution of another.Parallel Processing:For computers will multiple processorcomputer handles different parts of a program by executing instructions simultaneously.
42 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) SIMDSingle Instruction/Multiple Data methodA parallel-processing methodexecutes the same instruction on many data values simultaneously.MIMDMultiple Instruction/Multiple Data methodconnects a number of processors that run different programs or parts of a program on different sets of data.
44 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued) Grid Computing:A process that harnesses idle time on a computeruses multiple computers to provide processing for an application that needs more speed and capability