Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Central Processor and Memory

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Central Processor and Memory"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Central Processor and Memory
Chapter 4 The Central Processor and Memory

2 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition
Central Processing Unit (CPU) or Processor: executes program instructions and performs the computer’s processing actions. Integrated Circuits/Chip/Microchip: thousands or millions of transistors placed on a small silicon chip.

3 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued)
Transistor: An electrical switch can be in one of two states: open or closed. Integrating: The process of packing more transistors onto a single chip.

4 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Definition (Continued)

5 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Control Unit
The part of the CPU oversees and controls all computer activities Instructions: Low level actions to be carried out during input processing output storage transmission.

6 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)
part of the CPU performs arithmetic and logical operations. Logical Operations: Greater Than (>) Less Than (<) Equal To (=) Arithmetic Operations: Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division.

7 Memory Definition Primary Storage Primary Memory Main Memory
Internal Memory RAM: Primary memory holds data temporarily, as the computer executes instructions.

8 Memory Definition (Continued)

9 Memory Memory Size Bit: On or Off 1 or 0 2 Bits:
Four different values: 00, 01, 10, 11 3 Bits: Eight different values: 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111 Byte: 8 bits 256 different values Approximately 200 printable characters.

10 Memory Memory Size Kilobyte (KB or K): 1000 bytes
500 word text file  about 3-4K Megabyte (MB): One million bytes. Bitmap 800 X 600 X 24 bits  1.4 MB Gigabyte (GB): One billion bytes. Terabyte (TB): One trillion bytes.

11 Memory Memory Size (Continued)
How much space? Turing 1,000 home directories average home directory size 250 MB Image 2400 X 1800 resolution 64,000 colors Database 500,000 people first name last name phone number

12 Memory RAM and ROM ROM Read-only Memory
Memory is persistent even if computer is turned off Computer BIOS is stored on ROM chip BIOS (Basic Input Output System) need so computer can boot RAM Random-access Memory Read or Write Memory is lost when computer is turned off Random-access  any part of the memory can be access in constant time.

13 Memory Flash Memory Flash Memory: Read and Write
retains it contents even when electricity is turned off. Currently used in Cell phones Digital Cameras iPods, MP3 players Key chains

14 Memory RAM, ROM and Flash Memory

15 Memory Definition Boot: To turn on the computer system
let the built-in self-test run. Cold Boot: turned on from an off state CPU invokes the ROM BIOS boot program, which runs the power-up self-tests and loads the operating system from disk storage. Warm Boot: In a restart, the BIOS knows the system is already running (data is written in a specific memory location checked by the BIOS) and skips the power-on test.

16 Inside the System Unit Definition
Board: A hardware device onto which chips and their related circuitry are placed. System Board (Mother Board): The hardware unit that houses a computer’s processor, memory chips, ports, and add-in boards.

17 Inside the System Unit Processor Chips
Microprocessor: The smallest type of processor, with all of the processing capabilities of the control unit and ALU located on a single chip.

18 Inside the System Unit Evolution of Intel Pentium Family of Microprocessors

19 Inside the System Unit Intel Microprocessors
Intel Celeron Processors Does NOT have L2 cache, i.e., expensive memory that speeds up performance Intel Pentium Processors The Standard Intel Xeon Processors Designed to work in pairs (dual processors) Intel Itanium Processors 64-bit processor

20 Inside the System Unit Evolution of Microprocessors for Macintosh Computers

21 Inside the System Unit Other Microprocessor Chips
AMD Digital Equipment Corp. Motorola MIPS Technologies Sun Microcomputers

22 Inside the System Unit Memory Chips
Single In-line Memory Module (SIMM): A multiple-chip memory card inserted as a unit into a predesignated slot on a computer’s system board. Installed Memory: The amount of memory included by a computer’s manufacturer on its memory board. Maximum Memory: The most memory that a processor can hold.

23 Inside the System Unit Ports
A connector through which input/output devices can be plugged into the computer. Expansion Slot: A slot inside a computer that allows a user to add an additional circuit board.

24 Inside the System Unit Universal Serial Bus
Universal Serial Bus (USB): A general purpose port that can connect up to 128 devices, and also hot swappable, meaning that devices can be plugged in or unplugged without having to shut down or reboot the system.

25 Inside the System Unit Add-In Boards
A board that can be added to a computer to customize its features and capabilities.


27 Inside the System Unit Plug and Play
The ability to install devices into a computer when the computer itself makes any necessary internal adjustments.

28 The Processing Sequence The Machine Cycle
The four processing steps: fetch, decode, execute, and store. Instruction Cycle (I-cycle): The first two steps (fetch and decode), in which instructions are obtained and translated. Execution Cycle (E-cycle): The last two steps of the machine cycle (execute and store), which produce processing results.

29 The Processing Sequence The Machine Cycle

30 The Processing Sequence Registers
temporary storage built into the processor can move data and instructions more quickly than main memory can Four types: Storage Registers Address Registers Accumulators General-Purpose Registers

31 Processor Speed Definition
Millisecond: One thousandth of a second Microsecond: One millionth of a second. Nanosecond: One billionth of a second. Picosecond: One trillionth of a second.

32 Processor Speed Definition (Continued)
Millions of Instructions per Second (MIPS): The number of instructions the processor can execute per second – a measure of processor speed. Megaflops: Millions of floating point operations per second – a measure of how many detailed arithmetic calculations the computer can perform per second.

33 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed
Four elements: System Clock Bus Width Word Size Available Memory

34 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
System Clock: A circuit that generates electronic impulses at a fixed rate to synchronize processing activities. Megahertz (MHz): Millions of electric pulses per second – a measure of a computer’s speed. Gigahertz (GHz): Billions of electric pulses per second.

35 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
Bus Width Input/Output (I/O) bus: A bus (electronic circuit) that moves data into and out of the processor. Data Bus: A bus that moves data between the central processor and memory. Word Size Word: The number of bits a computer can process at one time.

36 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)

37 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
Cache Memory: A form of high-speed memory that acts as a temporary holding/processing cell. Coprocessors: A special-purpose chip mounted on a processor board; it is designed to handle common functions quickly and efficiently

38 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computing Intended to be an improvement Complex instructions require main memory RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computing A return to the old way Compact instructions need only registers

39 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
Pipelining: A computer starts processing a new instruction as soon as the previous instruction reaches its next step in the processing cycle.

40 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)

41 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
Sequential Processing: Processing in which the execution of one instruction is followed by the execution of another. Parallel Processing: For computers will multiple processor computer handles different parts of a program by executing instructions simultaneously.

42 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
SIMD Single Instruction/Multiple Data method A parallel-processing method executes the same instruction on many data values simultaneously. MIMD Multiple Instruction/Multiple Data method connects a number of processors that run different programs or parts of a program on different sets of data.


44 Processor Speed Determining Processor Speed (Continued)
Grid Computing: A process that harnesses idle time on a computer uses multiple computers to provide processing for an application that needs more speed and capability

Download ppt "The Central Processor and Memory"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google