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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling Outline FT of comb function Sampling Nyquist Condition sinc interpolation Truncation Aliasing

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling As we saw with the CCD camera and the pinhole imager, the detector plane is not a continuous mapping, but a discrete set of sampled points. This of course limits the resolution that can be observed.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Limits of Sampling Finite # of data points Finite field of view High spatial frequency features can be missed or recorded incorrectly

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Formalism of Sampling recall that

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Formalism of Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Formalism of Sampling f(x) Comb(x/ x) TopHat(2x/fov)

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Formalism of Sampling f(x) Comb(x/ x) TopHat(2x/fov)

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Formalism of Sampling {f n }

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Frequency of Sampling FT x k

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Frequency of Sampling FT x k every point every second point

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Frequency of Sampling FT x k every point every third point

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Frequency of Sampling FT x k every point every fourth point

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling Nyquist theorem: to correctly identify a frequency you must sample twice a period. So, if x is the sampling, then π/ x is the maximum spatial frequency.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling A Simple Cosine Function Consider a simple cosine function, We know the Fourier Transform of this What happens when we sample this at a rate of

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling A Simple Cosine Function (cont …) So that, Note, I’ve taken a short cut and left off the integrals that are needed to sample with the delta function.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Define A New Frequency: Case 1 Define a new frequency Case 1: In this case, there is no overlap and regardless of the complexity of this spectrum (think of having a number or continuum of cosine functions), the frequency spectrum correctly portrays the time evolution of the signal. fsfs -f s 2f 0 0

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Case 2 Now the frequency spectrum overlaps and look what happens to our picture, So it appears as though we are looking at a frequency of - this is an aliased signal. fsfs -f s 2f 0 0 2f’ 0 fsfs 0 -f s

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Nyquist Theorem Consider what happens when there is a complex spectrum. Then the entire spectrum overlaps. Either way, the frequency spectrum does not correspond to a correct picture of the dynamics of the original time domain signal. Nyquist Theorem: In order to correctly determine the frequency spectrum of a signal, the signal must be measured at least twice per period.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Return to the sampled cosine function So Now let

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition (cont…) Therefore we can see that it is not the Fourier Transform that fails to correctly portray the signal, but by our own sampling process we mis- represented the signal.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition A Fourier Picture of Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition A Fourier Picture of Sampling

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Bandwidth Limited time domain

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Limitations of Sampling {f n }

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Limitations of Sampling perfect sampling average 3 data points

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Limitations of Sampling perfect sampling average 5 data points

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Limitations of Sampling perfect sampling average 7 data points

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Reciprocal Space real space reciprocal space

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling real space under sampled

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sampling real space zero filled

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Sinc interpolation

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Filtering We can change the information content in the image by manipulating the information in reciprocal space. Weighting function in k-space.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Filtering We can also emphasis the high frequency components. Weighting function in k-space.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Fourier Convolution

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Deconvolution Recall in an ideal world Try deconvolution with

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Deconvolution (cont…) This appears to be a well-balanced function, but look what happens in a Fourier space however: Recall that the Fourier Transform is linear where PSF(k) << n(k), then noise is blown up. The inverse filter is ill-conditioned and greatly increases the noise particularly the high-frequency noise since This is avoided by employing a “Wiener” filter.

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Original Nyquist Problem A black & white TV has 500 lines with 650 elements per line. These are scanned through Electron beam is scanned over the screen by deflection magnets and the intensity of the beam is modulated to give the intensity at each point. The refresh rate is 30 frames/second. By the sampling theorem, if the frequency is, independent information is available once every seconds. Deflection magnets Electron beam Need information

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Fourier Transform of a Comb Function The Fourier Transform we wish to evaluate is, One trick to this is to express the comb function as a Fourier series expansion, not the transform. Normalization to keep the series unitary Limits chosen since this is a periodic function

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Fourier Transform of a Comb Function Over the interval to the comb function contains only a single delta function. A series representation of the comb function is

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22.058 - lecture 5, Sampling and the Nyquist Condition Fourier Transform of a Comb Function Now, 00kx …1… Note: Scaling laws hold

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