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Announcements Project 2 more signup slots questions Picture taking at end of class

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Image Segmentation Today’s Readings Forsyth chapter 14, 16

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From images to objects What Defines an Object? Subjective problem, but has been well-studied Gestalt Laws seek to formalize this –proximity, similarity, continuation, closure, common fate –see notes by Steve Joordens, U. Torontonotes

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Image Segmentation We will consider different methods Already covered: Intelligent Scissors (contour-based) Hough transform (model-based) This week: K-means clustering (color-based) EM Mean-shift Normalized Cuts (region-based)

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Image histograms How many “orange” pixels are in this image? This type of question answered by looking at the histogram A histogram counts the number of occurrences of each color –Given an image –The histogram is defined to be

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What do histograms look like? How Many Modes Are There? Easy to see, hard to compute

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Histogram-based segmentation Goal Break the image into K regions (segments) Solve this by reducing the number of colors to K and mapping each pixel to the closest color –photoshop demo

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Histogram-based segmentation Goal Break the image into K regions (segments) Solve this by reducing the number of colors to K and mapping each pixel to the closest color –photoshop demo Here’s what it looks like if we use two colors

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Clustering How to choose the representative colors? This is a clustering problem! Objective Each point should be as close as possible to a cluster center –Minimize sum squared distance of each point to closest center R G R G

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Break it down into subproblems Suppose I tell you the cluster centers c i Q: how to determine which points to associate with each c i ? A: for each point p, choose closest c i Suppose I tell you the points in each cluster Q: how to determine the cluster centers? A: choose c i to be the mean of all points in the cluster

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K-means clustering K-means clustering algorithm 1.Randomly initialize the cluster centers, c 1,..., c K 2.Given cluster centers, determine points in each cluster For each point p, find the closest c i. Put p into cluster i 3.Given points in each cluster, solve for c i Set c i to be the mean of points in cluster i 4.If c i have changed, repeat Step 2 Java demo: http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~bonnef/project.html http://www.cs.mcgill.ca/~bonnef/project.html Properties Will always converge to some solution Can be a “local minimum” does not always find the global minimum of objective function:

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Probabilistic clustering Basic questions what’s the probability that a point x is in cluster m? what’s the shape of each cluster? K-means doesn’t answer these questions Basic idea instead of treating the data as a bunch of points, assume that they are all generated by sampling a continuous function This function is called a generative model –defined by a vector of parameters θ

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Mixture of Gaussians One generative model is a mixture of Gaussians (MOG) K Gaussian blobs with means μ b covariance matrices V b, dimension d –blob b defined by: blob b is selected with probability the likelihood of observing x is a weighted mixture of Gaussians where

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Expectation maximization (EM) Goal find blob parameters θ that maximize the likelihood function: Approach: 1.E step: given current guess of blobs, compute ownership of each point 2.M step: given ownership probabilities, update blobs to maximize likelihood function 3.repeat until convergence

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E-step compute probability that point x is in blob i, given current guess of θ M-step compute probability that blob b is selected mean of blob b covariance of blob b EM details N data points

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EM demos http://www.cs.ucsd.edu/users/ibayrakt/java/em/ http://www.dreier.cc/index.php?topic=downloads&sub=em

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Applications of EM Turns out this is useful for all sorts of problems any clustering problem any model estimation problem missing data problems finding outliers segmentation problems –segmentation based on color –segmentation based on motion –foreground/background separation...

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Problems with EM Local minima Need to know number of segments Need to choose generative model

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Finding Modes in a Histogram How Many Modes Are There? Easy to see, hard to compute

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Mean Shift [ Comaniciu & Meer] Iterative Mode Search 1.Initialize random seed, and window W 2.Calculate center of gravity (the “mean”) of W: 3.Translate the search window to the mean 4.Repeat Step 2 until convergence

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Mean-Shift Approach Initialize a window around each point See where it shifts—this determines which segment it’s in Multiple points will shift to the same segment

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Mean-shift for image segmentation Useful to take into account spatial information instead of (R, G, B), run in (R, G, B, x, y) space D. Comaniciu, P. Meer, Mean shift analysis and applications, 7th International Conference on Computer Vision, Kerkyra, Greece, September 1999, 1197-1203. –http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/riul/research/papers/pdf/spatmsft.pdfhttp://www.caip.rutgers.edu/riul/research/papers/pdf/spatmsft.pdf More Examples: http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/~comanici/segm_images.html http://www.caip.rutgers.edu/~comanici/segm_images.html

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Region-based segmentation Color histograms don’t take into account spatial info Gestalt laws point out importance of spatial grouping –proximity, similarity, continuation, closure, common fate Suggests that regions are important

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q Images as graphs Fully-connected graph node for every pixel link between every pair of pixels, p,q cost c pq for each link –c pq measures similarity »similarity is inversely proportional to difference in color and position »this is different than the costs for intelligent scissors p C pq c

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Segmentation by Graph Cuts Break Graph into Segments Delete links that cross between segments Easiest to break links that have high cost –similar pixels should be in the same segments –dissimilar pixels should be in different segments w ABC

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Cuts in a graph Link Cut set of links whose removal makes a graph disconnected cost of a cut: A B Find minimum cut gives you a segmentation fast algorithms exist for doing this

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But min cut is not always the best cut...

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Cuts in a graph A B Normalized Cut a cut penalizes large segments fix by normalizing for size of segments volume(A) = sum of costs of all edges that touch A

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Interpretation as a Dynamical System Treat the links as springs and shake the system elasticity proportional to cost vibration “modes” correspond to segments

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Interpretation as a Dynamical System Treat the links as springs and shake the system elasticity proportional to cost vibration “modes” correspond to segments

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Color Image Segmentation

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Normalize Cut in Matrix Form ); D(i,j) = 0,(),( :i node from costsof sum theis ;),( :matrix cost theis, jiii cji j ji WDD WW Can write normalized cut as: Solution given by “generalized” eigenvalue problem: Solved by converting to standard eigenvalue problem: optimal solution corresponds to second smallest eigenvector for more details, see –J. Shi and J. Malik, Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation, IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition(CVPR), 1997Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation –http://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/455/03wi/readings/Ncut.pdfhttp://www.cs.washington.edu/education/courses/455/03wi/readings/Ncut.pdf

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Cleaning up the result Problem: Histogram-based segmentation can produce messy regions –segments do not have to be connected –may contain holes How can these be fixed? photoshop demo

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Dilation operator: 0000000000 0000000000 0001111100 0001111100 0001111100 0001011100 0001111100 0000000000 0010000000 0000000000 111 111 111 Dilation: does H “overlap” F around [x,y]? G[x,y] = 1 if H[u,v] and F[x+u-1,y+v-1] are both 1 somewhere 0 otherwise Written

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Dilation operator Demo http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/~majid/mengine/morph.html

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Erosion: is H “contained in” F around [x,y] G[x,y] = 1 if F[x+u-1,y+v-1] is 1 everywhere that H[u,v] is 1 0 otherwise Written Erosion operator: 0000000000 0000000000 0001111100 0001111100 0001111100 0001011100 0001111100 0000000000 0010000000 0000000000 111 111 111

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Erosion operator Demo http://www.cs.bris.ac.uk/~majid/mengine/morph.html

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Nested dilations and erosions What does this operation do? this is called a closing operation

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Nested dilations and erosions What does this operation do? this is called a closing operation Is this the same thing as the following?

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Nested dilations and erosions What does this operation do? this is called an opening operation http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/HIPR2/open.htm You can clean up binary pictures by applying combinations of dilations and erosions Dilations, erosions, opening, and closing operations are known as morphological operations see http://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/HIPR2/morops.htmhttp://www.dai.ed.ac.uk/HIPR2/morops.htm

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