# Rocket Power Introduction to Rockets and Missiles Scott Schoneman.

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Rocket Power Introduction to Rockets and Missiles Scott Schoneman

Agenda What is a rocket? What is a rocket? Definitions and Equations Definitions and Equations Types of Rocket Propulsion Types of Rocket Propulsion Launch Vehicles and Missiles Launch Vehicles and Missiles

What is a Rocket? “Any of a type of jet-propulsion device carrying either solid or liquid propellants that provide both the fuel and oxidizer required for combustion” - Encyclopedia Britannica “Any of a type of jet-propulsion device carrying either solid or liquid propellants that provide both the fuel and oxidizer required for combustion” - Encyclopedia Britannica Produces thrust by expelling propellant at a high velocity Produces thrust by expelling propellant at a high velocity

Key Rocket Terms Thrust, T: Force Generated By a Rocket Thrust, T: Force Generated By a Rocket Measured in pounds (lbf) or Newtons Measured in pounds (lbf) or Newtons Impulse (or Total Impulse), I: Total Energy Produced by a the Rocket Impulse (or Total Impulse), I: Total Energy Produced by a the Rocket Impulse, I = Thrust x Time Impulse, I = Thrust x Time Specific Impulse, I sp : Measure of Rocket Motor Efficiency Specific Impulse, I sp : Measure of Rocket Motor Efficiency Amount Of Energy In One Unit Of Propellant Mass Amount Of Energy In One Unit Of Propellant Mass I sp = Thrust/ Weight Flow per Second) I sp = Thrust/ Weight Flow per Second)

Key Rocket Terms, Cont’d Effective Exhaust Velocity: Average Velocity at Which Propellant is Ejected Effective Exhaust Velocity: Average Velocity at Which Propellant is Ejected Mass Ratio: Total Mass at Liftoff Divided by Total Mass At Burnout Mass Ratio: Total Mass at Liftoff Divided by Total Mass At Burnout Indication of Rocket Performance: Less Empty Mass and More Propellant Are Good Indication of Rocket Performance: Less Empty Mass and More Propellant Are Good Mass Fraction: Percentage of vehicle (or motor) that is propellant Mass Fraction: Percentage of vehicle (or motor) that is propellant

Rocket Thrust Combination of Reaction to Mass Ejection and Pressure at Nozzle Exit Plane: Combination of Reaction to Mass Ejection and Pressure at Nozzle Exit Plane: Force M*a

Types of Rocket Propulsion Liquid Propellant Rockets Liquid Propellant Rockets Solid Propellant Rockets Solid Propellant Rockets Hybrid Rockets Hybrid Rockets “Exotic” Rockets “Exotic” Rockets

Liquid Propellant Rockets Separate Liquid Fuel and Liquid Oxidizer Separate Liquid Fuel and Liquid Oxidizer Typical Fuel/Oxidizer Combinations Typical Fuel/Oxidizer Combinations Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Kerosene/Liquid Oxygen (LOX) Liquid Hydrogen/LOX Liquid Hydrogen/LOX Alcohol/LOX Alcohol/LOX Kerosene/Hydrogen Peroxide Kerosene/Hydrogen Peroxide Hydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide (Hypergolic) Hydrazine/Nitrogen Tetroxide (Hypergolic)

Saturn V Stage 1 (F-1) Motor Length: 5.6 meters (18 feet, 4 inches) Length: 5.6 meters (18 feet, 4 inches) Maximum diameter: 5.6 meters (11 feet, 11 inches) Maximum diameter: 5.6 meters (11 feet, 11 inches) Weight: 8200 kilograms (18,000 pounds) Weight: 8200 kilograms (18,000 pounds) Maximum thrust at sea level: 690,000 kilograms (1,522,000 pounds) Maximum thrust at sea level: 690,000 kilograms (1,522,000 pounds) Propellants: Liquid oxygen and kerosene Propellants: Liquid oxygen and kerosene Manufactured by Rocketdyne Manufactured by Rocketdyne Each Saturn V Stage 1 Used Five! (1.15 Billion lb-sec Impulse!)

Solid Propellant Rockets Fuel and Oxidizer Combined in Single Compound Fuel and Oxidizer Combined in Single Compound Blend of Fuels, Oxidizer, Binders to Give Desired Characteristics Blend of Fuels, Oxidizer, Binders to Give Desired Characteristics “Black Powder” (Model Rocket Motors) “Black Powder” (Model Rocket Motors) Aluminum Powder (Fuel)/Ammonium perchlorate (Oxidizer)/Binder(Hydroxy- terminated polybutadiene, HTPB) Aluminum Powder (Fuel)/Ammonium perchlorate (Oxidizer)/Binder(Hydroxy- terminated polybutadiene, HTPB)

Orion Solid Rocket Motors Built by ATK, Utah Built by ATK, Utah Used for Orbital’s Pegasus, Taurus, Minotaur and other Vehicles Used for Orbital’s Pegasus, Taurus, Minotaur and other Vehicles Composite Case Composite Case Diameter: Diameter: 50 in. (Orion 50) 50 in. (Orion 50) 38 in. (Orion 38) 38 in. (Orion 38)

Hybrid Rocket Motors Combine Solid Propellant With Liquid or Gaseous Oxidizer Combine Solid Propellant With Liquid or Gaseous Oxidizer Provides Benefits of Solid Motor (Storable) with Some Liquid Motor Benefits (Stop- Start, Variable Thrust) Provides Benefits of Solid Motor (Storable) with Some Liquid Motor Benefits (Stop- Start, Variable Thrust) Typical Propellant: Rubber, PVC Typical Propellant: Rubber, PVC Typical Oxidizer: LOX, Nitrous Oxide Typical Oxidizer: LOX, Nitrous Oxide

“Exotic” Motors Have Higher Isp’s (But Much Lower Thrusts) Engine Type Specific Impulse (sec) Chemical (Liquid, Solid, & Hybrid) 150-450 Nuclear Thermal 825-925 ARCJET (Electrothermal) 800-1200 MPD (Electromagnetic) 2000-5000 ION (Electrostatic) 3500-10000

Launch Vehicles vs. Missiles Launch Vehicle: Goes to Orbit Launch Vehicle: Goes to Orbit Missile: Suborbital and/or Stays In Atmosphere (Usually at a Target) Missile: Suborbital and/or Stays In Atmosphere (Usually at a Target) Space Launch Vehicle (Sea Launch) Missile (Standard Missile)

A Couple Missiles…. AIM-9X AMRAAM

Pegasus Space Launch Vehicle Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp Manufacturer: Orbital Sciences Corp 1000 lbm to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (100 nm) 1000 lbm to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (100 nm)

Sea Launch Space Launch Vehicle Integrator: Boeing Integrator: Boeing Uses Russian Zenit Launch Vehicle Uses Russian Zenit Launch Vehicle

Delta Launch Vehicles Manufacturer: Boeing Manufacturer: Boeing Delta II - 891 to 2,142 kg (1,965 to 4,723 lb) GTO and from 2.7 to 6.0 metric tons (5,934 to 13,281 lb) to low-Earth orbit (LEO). Delta II - 891 to 2,142 kg (1,965 to 4,723 lb) GTO and from 2.7 to 6.0 metric tons (5,934 to 13,281 lb) to low-Earth orbit (LEO). Delta III - 3,810 kg (8,400 lb) to GTO (Approx 2x Delta II) Delta III - 3,810 kg (8,400 lb) to GTO (Approx 2x Delta II) Delta IV (EELV) Delta IV (EELV) Medium: 4,210 kg (9,285 lb) to GTO Medium: 4,210 kg (9,285 lb) to GTO Heavy: 13,130 kg (28,950 lb) to GTO Heavy: 13,130 kg (28,950 lb) to GTO

Atlas Space Launch Vehicles Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Atlas II - payloads mass from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg) to 8,200 lb (3,719 kg) to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). Atlas II - payloads mass from 6,200 lb (2,812 kg) to 8,200 lb (3,719 kg) to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO). Atlas III - payloads up to 9,920 lb (4,500 kg) to GTO. Atlas III - payloads up to 9,920 lb (4,500 kg) to GTO. EELV Atlas V family is capable of lifting payloads up to 19,114 lb (8,670 kg) to GTO. EELV Atlas V family is capable of lifting payloads up to 19,114 lb (8,670 kg) to GTO.

Titan Launch Vehicles Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Manufacturer: Lockheed Martin Titan II: Up to 4,200 lb (1909 kg) into polar low- Earth orbit Titan II: Up to 4,200 lb (1909 kg) into polar low- Earth orbit Titan II w/ GEM Strap-Ons: Up to 7,800 lb (3545.5 kg) to polar low-Earth orbit Titan II w/ GEM Strap-Ons: Up to 7,800 lb (3545.5 kg) to polar low-Earth orbit Titan IV: >47,800 lb into LEO or > 12,700 lb into geosynchronous orbit Titan IV: >47,800 lb into LEO or > 12,700 lb into geosynchronous orbit

Ariane Space Launch Vehicles Manufacturer: Arianespace (European Consortium) Manufacturer: Arianespace (European Consortium) Ariane 5: 10,000 kg (22,000 lbm) to GTO Ariane 5: 10,000 kg (22,000 lbm) to GTO Launches from French Guiana Launches from French Guiana

Soyuz Launch Vehicle

Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) Manufacturer: Orbital Manufacturer: Orbital Raises Spacecraft from Shuttle Orbit to Higher Orbits (or Escape Velocity) Raises Spacecraft from Shuttle Orbit to Higher Orbits (or Escape Velocity)

Short-Range Target Vehicle Medium-Range Target Vehicle Long-Range Target Vehicle Missile Defense Interceptor Boost Vehicle Pegasus Space Launch Vehicle Minotaur Space Launch Vehicle Taurus Space Launch Vehicle Suborbital and Target Vehicles Space Launch Vehicles Interceptor Vehicles 0 20 40 60 80 100 Length (Feet) Orbital Launch Vehicle Family

Minotaur Space Launch Vehicle Upper Stack Assembly (USA)  50 In. Pegasus Payload Fairing  OSP-Standard Avionics Inertial Guidance Inertial Guidance Modular Avionics Components Modular Avionics Components  Pegasus Avionics Structure and RCS  Orion-38 Insertion Stage 4  Orion-50XL Stage 3  Interstage Lower Stack Assembly (LSA)  Minuteman II Boosters: Stages 1 & 2 Solid Rocket Motors Solid Rocket Motors Unmodified, GFE Systems Unmodified, GFE Systems

Minotaur Stacking Flow

Minotaur Mission Profile

Inaugural Minotaur Launch JAWSAT Mission - 26 Jan 2000 Photo by Brian Web

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