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Efficiency in Learning Chapter 1 Cognitive Load and Efficiency Learning.

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1 Efficiency in Learning Chapter 1 Cognitive Load and Efficiency Learning

2 Abstract p5 Efficiency instructional environments lead to better learning, faster learning  making the best use of limited human cognitive capacity. Cognitive load theory- Scientific basis for efficiency in learning Issues to be discussed –Three types of cognitive load –Variation in cognitive load –Learner prior knowledge –Complexity of learning task

3 Costs of Inefficient Instruction Training investment: US$50-60 billion /US/per year (More) Efficient learning environments: –Reducing instructional time –Improving leaning outcomes Information overload – practitioners experienced difficulties –The growth of information amount –The complexity and number of tasks that workers experienced Organizations want to save costs by reducing time spend in training programs p6

4 What is Cognitive Load Theory Miller (1956): –Human brain (cognitive system) can only process 7 + 2 items at one time. –Once we exceed those limits, our thinking and learning process bog down Based on research conducted over the past 25 years, the rule of 7 + 2 has been expanded into instructional principle  cognitive load theory P 7

5 What is Cognitive Load Theory Definition of Cognitive Load Theory Cognitive Load Theory is universal –Applies to all types of content –Addresses how to use tools for training –Applies to technical content and soft skills in all platforms –Suits to instructional designers and teachers Cognitive Load Theory offers principles and related instructional guidelines P 7-8

6 What is Cognitive Load Theory Definition of Cognitive Load Theory Cognitive Load Theory is evidence-based –Research-based findings support the theory Cognitive Load Theory leads to efficient learning Cognitive Load Theory leverage human cognitive learning processes –Minimize wasted mental resources –Put limited mental resources to maximal work –Adapt to instructional settings P 7-8

7 Types of Cognitive Load Intrinsic load: mental work imposed by the complexity of the lesson content –example of mental task (fig 1) –The assignment imposes intrinsic load due to the involvement of high amount of element interactivity –Several knowledge elements must be coordinated in memory to accomplish the task –Example of responding questions using foreign language – mental load is greater –Intrinsic load determined by the knowledge and skills associated with instructional objective –Segmenting and sequencing content into pieces P9-13

8 Types of Cognitive Load Germane (Relevant) load: mental work imposed by instructional activities that benefit instructional goals –Building skills needed to accomplish tasks –Practicing with skills –Studying diverse context examples for a broader repertoire of skills –Relevant load imposed by instructional methods that lead to a better learning outcome

9 Types of Cognitive Load Extraneous (Irrelevant) load: imposed mental work that is irrelevant to the learning goals –Design features that waste limited mental capacity (narration + text) –Coordination of two mode of information requires extra mental load

10 Types of Cognitive Load Balancing Mental Load in your training: –If your design includes elements that add extraneous load  very capacity left for germane load –To create efficient instruction  maximize germane load and minimize extraneous sources of load

11 Yellow Brick Load: The relativity cognitive load 認知負荷與任務複雜度之關係何在 ? Cognitive load depends on the interaction of three components  –Goals and its associated content –Audience ’ s prior knowledge –Instructional environment Intrinsic cognitive load is dependant on the amount element interactivity required to accomplish a task Learning outcomes require multiple content elements  greater cognitive load General guideline for achieving efficiency in learning: minimizing extraneous cognitive load

12 Yellow Brick Load: The relativity cognitive load 認知負荷與任務複雜度之關係何在 ? Task complexity? –Relative to the performers –Expertise (or experience) of audience Experts have a large skill repertoire in memory  for effortlessly perform tasks Avoid extraneous cognitive load when lessons involve complex content and the audiences are novices

13 Cognitive load theory and human learning 認知負荷與學習的關係 ? Working memory: –Limited capacity in active processing of information 7 + 2 –The site of thinking and learning process Long-term memory –Huge capacity in storing information –Information can be retrieved –Cannot not engage in thinking or learning process p15

14 Evidence-based Practice Rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant education activities and programs Seeking instructional decisions about the development and deployment of learning programs on the basis of valid evidence

15 Evidence for Cognitive Load Theory Experiments conducted over the past 25 years Participants  random assignments in two comparison group  measure learning outcomes (mental effort and learning) for complex tasks  extraneous cognitive load leads to depressed learning; For easier tasks  no differences (extraneous did not leads to …… )

16 Research Factors –Age –Prior knowledge –Length of content –Type of assignment –Immediate of delay measurement Research guidelines for diverse environment –E g modality principle: audio explanations of visual leads to better learning than text explanation of visuals

17 Quantifying efficiency Instructional environment that results in higher learning outcomes with less mental effort E (Efficiency) = P (Performance) – ML (Mental Load) (+ or -) –Performance: measured by test –Mental load: measured by students estimates of lesson difficulties

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