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Factual vs. Interpretive Knowledge

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Presentation on theme: "Factual vs. Interpretive Knowledge"— Presentation transcript:

1 Factual vs. Interpretive Knowledge
Factual Knowledge -- facts & statistics Interpretive Knowledge -- nuances surrounding facts & statistics; interpreted within the context of the culture

2 What is culture? the total range of activities and people.
the combination of learned meanings, values, norms and customs shared by a society

3 How do we get culture? learned through the process of socialization
social learning results in shared expectations, norms norms are used to evaluate objects, people and events Cultures & subcultures

4 Components of culture Material culture Social institutions
Belief systems (Humans & universe) Aesthetics Language

5 Religion and Its Impact on Marketing Practice
Protestant Religion – stresses hard work and frugality Judaism – stresses education and development Islam – focus on rules for social interaction Hinduism – encourages family orientation and dictates strict dietary constraints Buddhism – stresses sufferance and avoidance of worldly desires

6 Cultural Values - Hofstede’s Research
Individualism/Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity/Femininity Need Gratification

7 Individualism/Collectivism
Extent to which a country values independence of self vs. loyalty to others Example: Japan: Collectivist – impt to know one’s place; don’t shame family, avoid standing out U.S.: Individualist – express yourself (Cingular Wireless) & your opinions; show status (American Express); be an individual (Dr. Pepper)

8 Power Distance High PD: A society’s expectation that power/status is distributed unequally Example: India: High PD, caste system, hierarchy; strong dependence of lower social classes on higher classes; respect for authority U.S.: Low PD, people are created equal; ok to question or even defy authority

9 Masculinity/Femininity
Values for achievement/success (masculinity) vs. values for caring & quality of life (femininity) Examples: Scandinavian countries: feminine – not supposed to hurt feelings; respect the loser, or underdog U.S.: masculine – winning important, in your face; competition and aggressiveness count

10 Uncertainty Avoidance
The extent to which uncertainty and ambiguity are considered threatening Examples: Germany: high uncertainty avoidance – a structured education system with lots of rules, experts specialize in distinct areas with recognized qualifications U.S.: low uncertainty avoidance – liberal arts and general business degrees are valued; anyone can be an expert because there are no rules to define expertise

11 Long-term Orientation
The extent to which a country exhibits pragmatic planning for future vs. “live for the moment” short term perspective Examples: China: LT orientation – values perseverance, thrift, respect for tradition U.S.: ST orientation – values immediate gratification; initiative and entrepreneurship; innovation

12 Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
U.S. Values Individualism: Independence Low power distance: Equal opportunity Masculinity: Power, success, winning Low uncertainty avoidance: Obsession with change; new & better Short term orientation: Credit card culture Japanese Values Collectivist: group harmony High power distance: status, loyalty to superiors Masculinity: power, success (but don’t flaunt it) High uncertainty avoidance: structure, job hierarchy Long term orientation: cash culture De Mooij, Marieke (1998). Global marketing and advertising: Understanding Cultural Paradoxes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

13 National/Regional Character
Different cultures have different approaches to these concepts. Time Orientation Socializing Gender Roles Status Concern and Materialism Management outlook Communication

14 High vs. Low Context Cultures
Low-Context cultures: What is said is precisely what is meant High-Context cultures: The context of the message is more meaningful: the message source his or her standing in society or in the negotiating group level of expertise tone of voice body language

15 Cultural Norms Norms are derived from values and defined as rules that dictate what is right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable Imperatives customs that must be recognized and accommodated What an outsider must or must not do Exclusives customs that outsiders should not attempt to adopt Adiaphoras customs that are optional but still appreciated What an outsider may or may not do

16 Business Ethics

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