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Communication Teams.

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Presentation on theme: "Communication Teams."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communication Teams

2 Functions of Communication
Control Motivation Emotional expression Information

3 The Communication Process
Sender Encoding Channel Decoding Receiver Message Message Message Message Feedback

4 Communication Channels
Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members Informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices Personal and social messages

5 Interpersonal Communication
Oral Written Non-verbal

6 Oral Communication Advantages Disadvantages Speed Feedback
Potential for distorted message Content at destination is different from the original

7 Written Communication
Advantages Disadvantages Provide a tangible and verifiable record Can be stored for an indefinite period of time Physically available for later reference Well thought-out, logical, and clear Time consuming Lack of feedback No guarantee how reader will interpret it

8 Non-verbal Communication
Two most important messages that body language conveys are: (1) the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his views (2) the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver

9 Non-verbal Communication
Intonations Facial expression Physical distance

10 Computer-aided Communication
Instant messaging Intranet and Extranet links Video-conferencing

11 Instant Messaging Fast and inexpensive means for managers to stay in touch with employees No delay, no in-box clutter of messages, and no uncertainty as to whether the message was received

12 Knowledge Management Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time

13 Knowledge Management Provides an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performance

14 Knowledge Management Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets As baby boomers begin to leave the workforce, there’s an increasing awareness that they represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it

15 Barriers to Effective Communication
Filtering Selective Perception Information Overload Gender Styles Emotions Language

16 In an ever-increasing global economy, everyone needs to communicate….

17 A Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is proved
Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathy Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis

18 Cultural Context High-context cultures - rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others Low-context cultures - rely essentially on words to convey meaning

19 Communication and cultural competency
Communication is the sole process by which humans acquire and transmit their individual cultures (Jianglong Wang)

20 Communication and Cultural Context (Edward Hall)
High-context cultures - rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others -e.g., Mexico Low-context cultures - rely essentially on words to convey meaning e.g., England

21 Consider these facets of communication
Martin Gannon (2001) wrote a book about cultural metaphors that he believes represent 23 nations in the world. e.g., “this is a team made in heaven” "Do you like the class? " the Chinese English-speaker often responds with: "I think so." To the Chinese, this response is a very positive one; yet, to the American, the response is lukewarm. Both the use and comprehension of this particular comment in this situation require some contextual knowledge. (Jianglong Wang) Understand not just the language but the cultural processes. This means having the knowledge of when to say what to whom, and the appropriate manner of speaking.

22 Barriers to Effective Communication (Robbins)
Filtering Selective Perception (e.g., SI Theory) Information Overload Emotions Language/Lack of cultural competency

23 Teaching cultural competency
Workshops to teach Japanese business bows to Americans who go to Japan on business ventures. Japanese bows are more complicated than the American handshake due to the various ways to bow on various occasions to people of different status and seniority. Other useful examples?

24 Guidelines (Robbins) Assume differences until similarity is proved
Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathy Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis

25 Implications for Managers
Use Multiple Channels for Communication Use Feedback Simplify Language Listen Actively Constrain Emotions Gain cultural competency

26 Old Woman? Or Young Girl? Hint: The old woman’s nose is the young girl’s chin,

27 Fundamental attribution error – (evaluating others)
tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factors Self-serving bias – (evaluating self) tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck

28 Shortcuts to Judging Others (Robbins)
Selectivity - choosing bits of data depending on the interests, background, experience, and attitudes of observer Assumed Similarity - perceptions of others more influenced by what the observer is like or thinks

29 Shortcuts to Judging Others
Stereotyping - basing perception on group membership or association Halo Effect - drawing a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance

30 Communication Axioms Assume differences until similarity is proved
Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Treat your interpretation as a working hypothesis Practice empathy

31 Cross Cultural Communication
LaRay Barna identified 5 areas of potential communication barriers Language Nonverbal communications (different or rude) Stereotypes Evaluation of good or bad High Levels of Stress from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston

32 Non-verbal Communication
Two most important messages that body language conveys are: (1) the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his views (2) the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver

33 Non-verbal Communication
Intonations Facial expression Physical distance

34 CAR Model Context – What is the situation or context in which you observed the behaviour(s) you want to record or comment on. Action – What did the person(s) you observed actually do. Be sure to separate this from your inference and beliefs Reaction – How did you or other people respond to this action

35 Computer Aided Communication
“Communication in today’s organizations is enhanced and enriched by computer-aided technologies” Robbins, pg 144 Do you agree? ? IM? Others?

36 Knowledge Management Process of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time

37 Knowledge Management Intellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assets Provides an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performance As baby boomers begin to leave the workforce, there’s an increasing awareness that they represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it

38 Cross Cultural Communication
Culture Shock? Familiar cues about how others are supposed to behave are missing or have a different meaning Values that you consider good, desirable, beautiful and worthy are not respected by the host Feelings of disorientation, anxiety, depressed or hostile Dissatisfaction with new ways Socials skills do not seem to work any longer A sense that this will never go away. from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston

39 Cross Cultural Communication
Stages in Culture Shock Honeymoon Disorientation Irritability and hostility Adjustment and integration Biculturality from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston

40 Cross Cultural Communication
It is always better to keep the peace than to say what you think. Everyone should say what they believe. Which is correct? from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston

41 Groups Two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectives Formal or informal

42 Four Types of Groups Command Task Interest Friendship

43 Why Do People Join Groups?

44 Basic Group Concepts Roles Norms Status Cohesiveness Size Composition

45 Roles Psychological Contract Sets out mutual expectations

46 Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are adopted and shared by the group’s members

47 Examples of Cards Used in Asch Study
B C

48 Conformity and the Asch Studies
Demonstrated that subjects conformed in about 35% of the trials Members desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly different Members with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others

49 Symptoms of Groupthink
Group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptions Members pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority

50 Symptoms of Groupthink
Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importance Group interprets members’ silence as a “yes” vote for the majority

51 Variables Influencing Groupthink
Group’s cohesiveness Leader’s behavior Insulation from outsiders Time pressures Failure to follow methodical decision-making procedures

52 Groupshift Decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion

53 Jerry Harvey’s Story What’s likely to happen?
How was the decision made? Who wanted to go to Abilene?

54 Abilene Paradox Author: Harvey, Jerry B.
Title: The Abilene paradox and other meditations on management Published: Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books ; San Diego, Calif. : University Associates, c1988.

55 Stages of Group Formation
Forming Storming Norming Performing Ending

56 Forming Creation of group Getting to know each other
Developing expectations

57 Storming Establishing boundaries Who will lead/ control
How will conflicts be settled

58 Norming Agree as a group to rules and limits Define what the task is
Determine who will complete what parts Establish how influence/discipline will operate

59 Performing All ancillary components cleared away – now can focus on the task

60 Ending Not in every model
Recognize the need to get closure when things end

61 Use of Outside Products
Tools are useful, but the way of organizing the world is the real value Self-Assessment, Organization culture and MBTI from previous classes Today FIRO-B® Other tools for decision making and change Using this approach to understand what your are dealing with is essential to developing strategic organizations.

62 Overview of FIRO-B® Developed by Will Schutz.
Was originally created as a means to select submarine crews. Concerned about motivation to engage in social behavior. Decided that these motivations were derived from needs. Instrument owned and published by Consulting Psychologist Press.

63 The FIRO-B® Model Three basic interpersonal needs
Need to be a part of the group – Inclusion Need to be in control of the situation and others – Control Need to be liked and feel close to others - Affection

64 The FIRO-B® Model Not simply the need but what you do with it. There are two types of need: Those you show to others, that can be observed by people watching you – expressed Those that you are aware of but typically do not show - Need to be in control of the situation and others – wanted

65 FIRO-B® Scoring Put the data into a matrix with the need across the top and the expressed vs. wanted on the side. Inclusion Control Affection expressed eI eC eA wanted wI wC wA

66 FIRO-B® Scoring Low = I do this or respond this way occasionally and selectively. Medium = I do this or respond this way usually and with many people. High = I do this or respond this way very frequently and with almost everyone.

67 Groups Evolve Through Particular Stages Along the Dimensions of:
Inclusion — Control — Affection Inclusion — early formation stage Where do I fit in? Do I want to be in or out? How committed will I become? How committed is our leader? Control — mid-development Competition for leadership. What is the method for decision making? How will power be distributed? Affection How close shall I get if the group exists over long period of time?

68 Inclusion Forming new relations, associating with people
Extent of contact and prominence a person seeks Expressed: To what extent do I include other people in my activities (e.g., meetings, discussions) and get them to include me in theirs? Low – Quiet - Very reserved -Difficult to know High – Engaging – Outgoing - Connected Wanted: How much do I want others to include me in their activities and invite me to participate? Low – Private - Little concern for popularity - High - Need for acceptance - Hate to be left out

69 Typical Behavior for: eI HIGH Initiates contact
Shows interest in others Likes to socialize Group-oriented Communicative Outgoing LOW Appears reserved Seems restrained Fact-oriented Doesn’t like to chit-chat

70 Typical Behavior for: wI HIGH Fears being ignored or left out
Likes to be included Is easily slighted Wants attention Concern for recognition Desires status LOW Seems self-sufficient Appears self-reliant Likes to be alone Doesn’t care to socialize

71 Control Decision making, influence, and persuasion between people
Extent of power or dominance a person seeks Expressed: How much control and influence do I exert over things? To what extent do I take charge and tell others what to do? Low - Flexible - Little interest in power –Easygoing High - Intense –Exacting - Dominant Wanted: How much control and influence do I want others to have over me? How comfortable am I with others telling me what to do? Low – Independent - Rebellious - Prefers autonomy High - Compliant – Dependent - Uncomfortable making decisions

72 Typical Behavior for: eC HIGH Likes to direct people
Makes decisions readily Organizes self and others Seems confident Wants challenges LOW Not power-oriented Non-directive Prefers not to supervise others Wants others to make their own decisions

73 Typical Behavior for: wC HIGH Wants direction or guidance
Concerned about rules Supports others Cooperative Methodical and orderly Wants structure LOW Appears independent Works with, not for others Follows through on decisions Rejects structure

74 Affection Emotional ties and warm connections between people
Extent of closeness a person seeks Expressed: To what extent do I act open, trusting, and caring toward others? Low – Businesslike - Aloof - Rational High - Caring – Warm - Reassuring Wanted: How much do I want others to act open, trusting, and caring toward me? Low - Distant - Closed – Cautious High - Considerate – Approachable - Sensitive

75 Typical Behavior for: eA LOW HIGH Appears unfeeling Open and trusting
Seems calm and aloof Appears objective and formal Appears unemotional HIGH Open and trusting Warm and friendly Expresses feelings Gives acknowledgment Shows support Shows encouragement

76 Typical Behavior for: wA LOW HIGH Appears guarded Wants to be liked
Not easy to know Can be direct and blunt Seems invulnerable Appears cool and rational HIGH Wants to be liked Wants others’ trust Concern for approval Responds well to praise Easily hurt Takes criticism hard

77 The Hawthorne Studies Concluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely related Group influences were significant in affecting individual behavior. Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output. Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.

78 Cohesiveness The degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group

79 Relationship of Cohesiveness to Productivity
High Low Strong increase in productivity Moderate increase in productivity High Alignment of group and organizational goals Decrease in productivity No significant effect on productivity Low

80 How Can Managers Encourage Cohesiveness?
Make the group smaller Encourage agreement on group goals Increase the time spent together Increase the status and perceived difficulty of group membership Stimulate competition with other groups Give rewards to the group rather than members Physically isolate the group

81 How Size Affects a Group
Smaller groups are faster at completing tasks Large groups are consistently better at problem solving Increases in group size are inversely related to individual performance


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