2 Functions of Communication ControlMotivationEmotional expressionInformation
3 The Communication Process SenderEncodingChannelDecodingReceiverMessageMessageMessageMessageFeedback
4 Communication Channels Formal channels are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of membersInformal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choicesPersonal and social messages
5 Interpersonal Communication OralWrittenNon-verbal
6 Oral Communication Advantages Disadvantages Speed Feedback Potential for distorted messageContent at destination is different from the original
7 Written Communication AdvantagesDisadvantagesProvide a tangible and verifiable recordCan be stored for an indefinite period of timePhysically available for later referenceWell thought-out, logical, and clearTime consumingLack of feedbackNo guarantee how reader will interpret it
8 Non-verbal Communication Two most important messages that body language conveys are:(1) the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his views(2) the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver
9 Non-verbal Communication IntonationsFacial expressionPhysical distance
10 Computer-aided Communication Instant messagingIntranet and Extranet linksVideo-conferencing
11 Instant MessagingFast and inexpensive means for managers to stay in touch with employeesNo delay, no in-box clutter of messages, and no uncertainty as to whether the message was received
12 Knowledge ManagementProcess of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time
13 Knowledge ManagementProvides an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performance
14 Knowledge ManagementIntellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assetsAs baby boomers begin to leave the workforce, there’s an increasing awareness that they represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it
15 Barriers to Effective Communication FilteringSelective PerceptionInformation OverloadGender StylesEmotionsLanguage
16 In an ever-increasing global economy, everyone needs to communicate….
17 A Cultural Guide Assume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluationPractice empathyTreat your interpretation as a working hypothesis
18 Cultural ContextHigh-context cultures - rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with othersLow-context cultures - rely essentially on words to convey meaning
19 Communication and cultural competency Communication is the sole process by which humans acquire and transmit their individual cultures (Jianglong Wang)
20 Communication and Cultural Context (Edward Hall) High-context cultures - rely heavily on nonverbal and subtle situational cues when communicating with others-e.g., MexicoLow-context cultures - rely essentially on words to convey meaninge.g., England
21 Consider these facets of communication Martin Gannon (2001) wrote a book about cultural metaphors that he believes represent 23 nations in the world. e.g., “this is a team made in heaven”"Do you like the class? " the Chinese English-speaker often responds with: "I think so." To the Chinese, this response is a very positive one; yet, to the American, the response is lukewarm. Both the use and comprehension of this particular comment in this situation require some contextual knowledge. (Jianglong Wang)Understand not just the language but the cultural processes. This means having the knowledge of when to say what to whom, and the appropriate manner of speaking.
22 Barriers to Effective Communication (Robbins) FilteringSelective Perception (e.g., SI Theory)Information OverloadEmotionsLanguage/Lack of cultural competency
23 Teaching cultural competency Workshops to teach Japanese business bows to Americans who go to Japan on business ventures.Japanese bows are more complicated than the American handshake due to the various ways to bow on various occasions to people of different status and seniority.Other useful examples?
24 Guidelines (Robbins) Assume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluationPractice empathyTreat your interpretation as a working hypothesis
25 Implications for Managers Use Multiple Channels for CommunicationUse FeedbackSimplify LanguageListen ActivelyConstrain EmotionsGain cultural competency
26 Old Woman?Or Young Girl?Hint: The old woman’s nose is the young girl’s chin,
27 Fundamental attribution error – (evaluating others) tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal or personal factorsSelf-serving bias – (evaluating self)tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors such as ability or effort while putting the blame for failure on external factors such as luck
28 Shortcuts to Judging Others (Robbins) Selectivity - choosing bits of data depending on the interests, background, experience, and attitudes of observerAssumed Similarity - perceptions of others more influenced by what the observer is like or thinks
29 Shortcuts to Judging Others Stereotyping - basing perception on group membership or associationHalo Effect - drawing a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic, such as intelligence, sociability, or appearance
30 Communication Axioms Assume differences until similarity is proved Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluationTreat your interpretation as a working hypothesisPractice empathy
31 Cross Cultural Communication LaRay Barna identified 5 areas of potential communication barriersLanguageNonverbal communications (different or rude)StereotypesEvaluation of good or badHigh Levels of Stressfrom Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston
32 Non-verbal Communication Two most important messages that body language conveys are:(1) the extent to which an individual likes another and is interested in his views(2) the relative perceived status between a sender and receiver
33 Non-verbal Communication IntonationsFacial expressionPhysical distance
34 CAR ModelContext – What is the situation or context in which you observed the behaviour(s) you want to record or comment on.Action – What did the person(s) you observed actually do. Be sure to separate this from your inference and beliefsReaction – How did you or other people respond to this action
35 Computer Aided Communication “Communication in today’s organizations is enhanced and enriched by computer-aided technologies” Robbins, pg 144Do you agree??IM?Others?
36 Knowledge ManagementProcess of organizing and distributing an organization’s collective wisdom so the right information gets to the right people at the right time
37 Knowledge ManagementIntellectual assets are now as important as physical or financial assetsProvides an organization with both a competitive edge and improved organizational performanceAs baby boomers begin to leave the workforce, there’s an increasing awareness that they represent a wealth of knowledge that will be lost if there are no attempts to capture it
38 Cross Cultural Communication Culture Shock?Familiar cues about how others are supposed to behave are missing or have a different meaningValues that you consider good, desirable, beautiful and worthy are not respected by the hostFeelings of disorientation, anxiety, depressed or hostileDissatisfaction with new waysSocials skills do not seem to work any longerA sense that this will never go away.from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston
39 Cross Cultural Communication Stages in Culture ShockHoneymoonDisorientationIrritability and hostilityAdjustment and integrationBiculturalityfrom Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston
40 Cross Cultural Communication It is always better to keep the peace than to say what you think.Everyone should say what they believe.Which is correct?from Hofstede, G.J., Pedersen, P.B. & Hofstede, G., 2002, Exploring culture: Exercises, stories and synthetic cultures. Intercultural Press, Boston
41 GroupsTwo or more individuals, interacting and interdependent, who come together to achieve particular objectivesFormal or informal
42 Four Types of GroupsCommandTaskInterestFriendship
48 Conformity and the Asch Studies Demonstrated that subjects conformed in about 35% of the trialsMembers desire to be one of the group and avoid being visibly differentMembers with differing opinions feel extensive pressure to align with others
49 Symptoms of Groupthink Group members rationalize any resistance to their assumptionsMembers pressure any doubters to support the alternative favored by the majority
50 Symptoms of Groupthink Doubters keep silent about misgivings and minimize their importanceGroup interprets members’ silence as a “yes” vote for the majority
51 Variables Influencing Groupthink Group’s cohesivenessLeader’s behaviorInsulation from outsidersTime pressuresFailure to follow methodical decision-making procedures
52 GroupshiftDecision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group’s discussion
53 Jerry Harvey’s Story What’s likely to happen? How was the decision made?Who wanted to go to Abilene?
54 Abilene Paradox Author: Harvey, Jerry B. Title: The Abilene paradox and other meditations on managementPublished: Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books ; San Diego, Calif. : University Associates, c1988.
55 Stages of Group Formation FormingStormingNormingPerformingEnding
56 Forming Creation of group Getting to know each other Developing expectations
57 Storming Establishing boundaries Who will lead/ control How will conflicts be settled
58 Norming Agree as a group to rules and limits Define what the task is Determine who will complete what partsEstablish how influence/discipline will operate
59 PerformingAll ancillary components cleared away – now can focus on the task
60 Ending Not in every model Recognize the need to get closure when things end
61 Use of Outside Products Tools are useful, but the way of organizing the world is the real valueSelf-Assessment, Organization culture and MBTI from previous classesToday FIRO-B®Other tools for decision making and changeUsing this approach to understand what your are dealing with is essential to developing strategic organizations.
62 Overview of FIRO-B® Developed by Will Schutz. Was originally created as a means to select submarine crews.Concerned about motivation to engage in social behavior.Decided that these motivations were derived from needs.Instrument owned and published by Consulting Psychologist Press.
63 The FIRO-B® Model Three basic interpersonal needs Need to be a part of the group – InclusionNeed to be in control of the situation and others – ControlNeed to be liked and feel close to others - Affection
64 The FIRO-B® ModelNot simply the need but what you do with it. There are two types of need:Those you show to others, that can be observed by people watching you – expressedThose that you are aware of but typically do not show - Need to be in control of the situation and others – wanted
65 FIRO-B® ScoringPut the data into a matrix with the need across the top and the expressed vs. wanted on the side.InclusionControlAffectionexpressedeIeCeAwantedwIwCwA
66 FIRO-B® ScoringLow = I do this or respond this way occasionally and selectively.Medium = I do this or respond this way usually and with many people.High = I do this or respond this way very frequently and with almost everyone.
67 Groups Evolve Through Particular Stages Along the Dimensions of: Inclusion — Control — AffectionInclusion — early formation stageWhere do I fit in?Do I want to be in or out?How committed will I become?How committed is our leader?Control — mid-developmentCompetition for leadership.What is the method for decision making?How will power be distributed?Affection How close shall I get if the group exists over long period of time?
68 Inclusion Forming new relations, associating with people Extent of contact and prominence a person seeksExpressed:To what extent do I include other people in my activities (e.g., meetings, discussions) and get them to include me in theirs?Low – Quiet - Very reserved -Difficult to knowHigh – Engaging – Outgoing - ConnectedWanted:How much do I want others to include me in their activities and invite me to participate?Low – Private - Little concern for popularity -High - Need for acceptance - Hate to be left out
69 Typical Behavior for: eI HIGH Initiates contact Shows interest in othersLikes to socializeGroup-orientedCommunicativeOutgoingLOWAppears reservedSeems restrainedFact-orientedDoesn’t like to chit-chat
70 Typical Behavior for: wI HIGH Fears being ignored or left out Likes to be includedIs easily slightedWants attentionConcern for recognitionDesires statusLOWSeems self-sufficientAppears self-reliantLikes to be aloneDoesn’t care to socialize
71 Control Decision making, influence, and persuasion between people Extent of power or dominance a person seeksExpressed:How much control and influence do I exert over things? To what extent do I take charge and tell others what to do?Low - Flexible - Little interest in power –EasygoingHigh - Intense –Exacting - DominantWanted:How much control and influence do I want others to have over me? How comfortable am I with others telling me what to do?Low – Independent - Rebellious - Prefers autonomyHigh - Compliant – Dependent - Uncomfortable making decisions
72 Typical Behavior for: eC HIGH Likes to direct people Makes decisions readilyOrganizes self and othersSeems confidentWants challengesLOWNot power-orientedNon-directivePrefers not to supervise othersWants others to make their own decisions
73 Typical Behavior for: wC HIGH Wants direction or guidance Concerned about rulesSupports othersCooperativeMethodical and orderlyWants structureLOWAppears independentWorks with, not for othersFollows through on decisionsRejects structure
74 Affection Emotional ties and warm connections between people Extent of closeness a person seeksExpressed:To what extent do I act open, trusting, and caring toward others?Low – Businesslike - Aloof - RationalHigh - Caring – Warm - ReassuringWanted:How much do I want others to act open, trusting, and caring toward me?Low - Distant - Closed – CautiousHigh - Considerate – Approachable - Sensitive
75 Typical Behavior for: eA LOW HIGH Appears unfeeling Open and trusting Seems calm and aloofAppears objective and formalAppears unemotionalHIGHOpen and trustingWarm and friendlyExpresses feelingsGives acknowledgmentShows supportShows encouragement
76 Typical Behavior for: wA LOW HIGH Appears guarded Wants to be liked Not easy to knowCan be direct and bluntSeems invulnerableAppears cool and rationalHIGHWants to be likedWants others’ trustConcern for approvalResponds well to praiseEasily hurtTakes criticism hard
77 The Hawthorne StudiesConcluded that a worker’s behavior and sentiments were closely relatedGroup influences were significant in affecting individual behavior.Group standards were highly effective in establishing individual worker output.Money was less a factor in determining worker output than were group standards, sentiments, and security.
78 CohesivenessThe degree to which members of the group are attracted to each other and motivated to stay in the group
79 Relationship of Cohesiveness to Productivity HighLowStrong increase in productivityModerate increase in productivityHighAlignment of group and organizational goalsDecrease in productivityNo significant effect on productivityLow
80 How Can Managers Encourage Cohesiveness? Make the group smallerEncourage agreement on group goalsIncrease the time spent togetherIncrease the status and perceived difficulty of group membershipStimulate competition with other groupsGive rewards to the group rather than membersPhysically isolate the group
81 How Size Affects a Group Smaller groups are faster at completing tasksLarge groups are consistently better at problem solvingIncreases in group size are inversely related to individual performance