GENDER EQUITY IN SPORT. Title IX Before 1970’s, many boys only teams Before 1970’s, nine states prohibited interschool sports for females –Those with.
Published byModified over 5 years ago
Presentation on theme: "GENDER EQUITY IN SPORT. Title IX Before 1970’s, many boys only teams Before 1970’s, nine states prohibited interschool sports for females –Those with."— Presentation transcript:
Title IX Before 1970’s, many boys only teams Before 1970’s, nine states prohibited interschool sports for females –Those with teams often had restricted schedules Prior to 1970’s, female collegiate programs were 15% of athletes, and 2% of the budget –AIAW (assoc for intercollegiate athletics for women: - 1982)
GENDER EQUITY IN SPORT Reasons for Increased Participation 1. New Opportunities 2. 3. The global women ’ s right movement 4. 5. Increase media coverage of women in sports
GENDER EQUITY IN SPORT Law and Legal Theory in Equity: 1) the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, 2) Title IX, 3) t he laws of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act of 1963.
Title IX What is Title IX? No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Title IX Athletics programs are considered educational programs and activities. There are three basic parts of Title IX as it applies to athletics: 1. : Title IX requires that women and men be provided equitable opportunities to participate in sports. Title IX does not require institutions to offer identical sports but an equal opportunity to play.
Title IX a. Whether intercollegiate level participation opportunities for male and female students are provided in substantially proportionate to their respective enrollment; or b. Where the members of one sex have been and are under-represented among intercollegiate athletes, whether the institution can show a history and continuing practice of program expansion which is demonstrably responsive to the developing interest and abilities of the members of the sex; or c. Whether it can be demonstrated that the interest and abilities of the members of that sex have been fully and effectively accommodated by the present program
Title IX 2. : Title IX requires that female and male student-athletes receive athletics scholarship dollars proportional to their participation. Disparate Impact: An institution of higher education or a secondary school system must show that the percentage of females and males given the opportunity to play in sport is the same as the percentage of males and females attending the institution. The dollar amount of scholarships awarded to female athletes must be proportional to the percentage of female athletes.
Title IX Enrollment Participation (%) Berths Scholarships Males 6,400 40% 240 120 Females 9,600 60% 360 180 Total 16,000 100% 600 300
Title IX 3. : Title IX requires the equal treatment of female and male student-athletes in the provisions of: (a) equipment and supplies; (b) scheduling of games and practice times; (c) travel and daily allowance/per diem; (d) access to tutoring; (e) coaching, (f) locker rooms, practice and competitive facilities; (g) medical and training facilities and services;
Title IX (h) housing and dining facilities and services; (i) publicity and promotions; (j) support services and (k) recruitment of student-athletes. http://chronicle.com/stats/genderequity/chronicle.com/stats/genderequity
Positions of Authority and Status in Female Sports Coaches and Administrators Women have less high level sport opportunities -Women fill only 33% of all administrative jobs in women ’ s program. Less than 20% of Athletic Directors are women. In 1972 over 90% of women ’ s team were coached by women. In 2000 half of the women ’ s college teams were coached by men and only 2% of men ’ s team were coached by women.
Title IX Often go to men –“old boys network” –Perceived as more qualified Men are paid more –For coaching men’s or women’s teams The Equal Pay Act of 1963- an employer is prohibited from paying an employee in the same establishment at a lesser rate than that at which he/she pays employees of the opposite sex where the work is equal. It covers the wage discrimination, and its coverage applies to jobs substantially equal in skill (education, ability, training, and experience), effort (physical and metal exertion), responsibility (accountability and supervisory duty), and working condition (surrounding and hazard).