Solenoid Flux Coils of wire carrying current generate a magnetic field. Strong field inside solenoidStrong field inside solenoid If the current increases then the magnetic field increases. Increased magnetic fluxIncreased magnetic flux The magnetic flux through all coils depends on the coil area and the number of turns. B NI,l
Inductance The ratio of magnetic flux to current is the inductance. Inductance is measured in henrys. 1 H = 1 T m 2 / A1 H = 1 T m 2 / A More common, 1 H = 1 V / A / sMore common, 1 H = 1 V / A / s The inductance can be derived for an ideal solenoid.
Coil Length An inductor is made by wrapping a single layer of wire around a 4.0-mm diameter cylinder. The wire is 0.30 mm in diameter. What coil length is needed to have an inductance of 10 H? The formula is based on the radius and length of the coil. Radius r = 2.0 x 10 -3 m Turns N = l / d Substitute for in the formula.
Electric Inertia A changing current will create a changing flux. Faraday’s law states that the changing flux will create an emf. Direction from Lenz’s lawDirection from Lenz’s law The emf acts to oppose the change in flux. Inertial responseInertial response B Increasing I, B Decreasing I,
Back-Emf Motors have internal coils. The self-inductance will oppose a change in current by creating an emf. This back-emf is responsible for excess power draw when a motor starts.
Induced EMF Faraday’s law gives the magnitude of the induced emf. Depends on rate of changeDepends on rate of change The definition of inductance gives a relationship between voltage and current. More useful in circuitsMore useful in circuits Inductive elements in a circuit act like batteries. Stabilizes currentStabilizes current
Mutual Inductance The definition of inductance applies to transformers. Mutual inductance vs self- inductance Mutual inductance applies to both windings.
Stored Energy Electrical power is voltage times current. True for emf from inductanceTrue for emf from inductance Average current is approximately one half maximumAverage current is approximately one half maximum Use one half to get average powerUse one half to get average power Magnetic energy is stored in a magnetic field. Energy is the power times the timeEnergy is the power times the time
Energy Density The energy density in a solenoid is based on its volume. The energy density can be expressed in terms of the magnetic field. next The energy density in a capacitor is based on its volume. The energy density can be expressed in terms of the electric field.