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Chapter 10 Cities and Urban Economies

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1 Chapter 10 Cities and Urban Economies
Relation between urban growth and capitalist development Central place theory Economic base model Housing markets in urban areas Gentrification processes & poverty The development of global cities

2 Town Plan in Old Savannah

3 Savannah was the cotton capital of the South in the early 19th Century. The first steam powered ship to cross the Atlantic went from Savannah to Liverpool in about 1830. Today the waterfront is offices and tourist facilities

4 Urban Division of Labor
Central Business Districts to urban peripheries Residential Location Decisions Filtering Model of Housing – Fig 10.7 – alternative mechanisms for price rises Population Density Gradients Alternative Patterns of Urban Development: concentric rings, sectors, and multi-nuclei

5 Burgess + Harris and Ullman’s Land Use Models

6 An Example of the Sector Model

7 Spatial Evolution of the American Metropolis: Adams Model
Stage I: Pre Electric Trolley Stage II: Electric Streetcars Stage III: Automobile Era Stage IV: High-speed expressways to distant suburbs BUT Not all cities have been Through all these phases! S

8 Spatial Evolution of the American Metropolis: Erickson’s Model

9 Location Rents in Urban Areas
Industrial Residential Agricultural Distance from Center Commercial

10 Filtering Model Of Housing

11 Regional Housing Price Differences


13 Current Housing Price Dynamics ?
$ S D2 P1 P2 D1 D2 S Q2 Q1 Q

14 Typical Population Density Gradients
Urban Growth Boundary Under Growth Management Act to limit sprawl Rethinking mix of Housing and commercial Activity in central cities

15 Land Rent Complexities due to multiple-nuclei in urban areas

16 Sprawling Metropolis: Patterns and Problems
Classic models of urban land use are problematic in the automobile era Suburbs fueled by population explosion in cities (immigrants) + filtering of settlement (Tiebout processes) The suburban development syndrome: Fig low mortgage interest rates + federal housing loan guarantees + tax benefits for household ownership + cheap land + low cost transportation + highway subsidies

17 Consequence: A Shifting Pattern of Settlement
Rise of Edge Cities

18 Warf’s Exurban Sprawl Not all are “vast conurbations with millions of people apiece”

19 Gentrification Gentrification in housing – reversing (to some extent) the suburban flight – related to changing family structure (esp. multiple workers) and to changing employment structure (esp. advanced services) Gentrification in buildings – rise of advanced services with a preference for inner city locations – recycled spaces

20 American City Problems
Some aspects of this section are hard to appreciate here in the Puget Sound area Table 10.1 – documenting central city population decline, Figure depicts the downward spiral of resources fueling urban decay The rise of inner-city ghettos and strong concentrations of African American families caught in a cycle creating an underclass, marked by low wages, poor housing, poor schools, lack of health care and high crime rates The text emphasizes African Americans, but similar situations exist for other groups, including Hispanic, eastern European and Russian, Southeast Asian, African immigrants Hurricane Katrina revealed the depth of these problems in New Orleans and the weakness of social programs to help the poor

21 Fig 10.12 Are we in this slide now nationally?

22 Migration Streams 1920’s to 1940’s: What about today?

23 Poverty Rates in the United States

24 The Spatial Mismatch Principle
Skills of many inner city residents do not match up well to inner city job opportunities Job opportunities for these people tend to be better in suburbs Costs to commute to these jobs are high for poorer people (reverse commuting) But barriers in hiring lead to discouraged workers and dropout from the labor force

25 The Global Cities Argument
A shift of scale: from the regional to the national and then to the GLOBAL Bases of the concept of global cities Global corporate structures New York, London, and Tokyo as key centers of power The decentralization of production and the diffusion of corporate control centers Criteria for Fig ? Western hemisphere looks fine to me, but Eastern hemisphere has some problems

26 Global Cities – Do You Buy this Hierarchy?

27 The explosion of major urban areas

28 Chapter 10: Summary Comments
Cities are a key product of the industrial revolution and the development of capitalist economies Trade between city-regions is the basis of the global economy People work in cities in spaces that are unequal, and have rewards that are unequal Cities dominate the planet’s economy, and are of critical importance in processes of social and economic development

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