Anxiety Disorders “The Dark side of Fear”. Definitions Fear: A short-term emotional and physiological reaction to a threatening event Anxiety: A longer-term.
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Presentation on theme: "Anxiety Disorders “The Dark side of Fear”. Definitions Fear: A short-term emotional and physiological reaction to a threatening event Anxiety: A longer-term."— Presentation transcript:
DSM-IV Phobia Subtypes Specific Phobia: particular stimuli and situations Social Phobia: negatively evaluated by others or being embarrassing or humiliated Agoraphobia: fear of being separated from a safe place/person (fear of fear)
Panic Disorder Description: experience of recurrent terrifying panic attacks shortness of breath and irregular heartbeat dizziness and feelings of unreality –can occur while sleeping –associated with agoraphobia (“comorbidity”) –concerns about “going crazy”
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Description: persistent, upsetting, and unwarranted thoughts (obsessions) that motivate repetitive behaviors (compulsions) –obsession causes anxiety, compulsion reduces it –equally common in men and women –often associated with depression
Obsessions –dirt, germs or toxins –something terrible is happening (fire, death or illness) –symmetry, order or exactness
Compulsions –Checking rituals: checking locks, car brakes, appliances, homework, etc. –Cleaning rituals: hand-washing, bathing, brushing teeth, etc. –Other: getting in/out of chair, opening/closing doors, etc.
Anxiety Disorders and Learning Compulsive behavior are learned responses which removes temporarily remove distress (trigger could be a thought) Some phobias acquired through learning –biologically prepared to learn certain phobias –snake fears learned via observation
Other Causes Psychological Factors –Environmental stressors –Ways of thinking
Somatoform Disorders Can mental disorder cause blindness?
Somatoform Disorders body disorder even though there is no physical cause Conversion Disorder: –appear when person is under severe distress. –disorder enables person to avoid unpleasant situations. –organically impossible or improbable symptoms –little concern for this “serious” problem
Other Somatoform Disorders Hypochondriasis: strong, unjustified fear of serious physical problem Somatization Disorder: dramatic but vague, reports about a multitude of physical problems Pain Disorder: severe, often constant pain with no physical cause.
Anxiety Disorder Treatments Behavior Therapy –1. systematic desensitization/exposure therapysystematic desensitization/exposure therapy –2. response blocking/prevention (OCD)response blocking/prevention (OCD) –3. flooding/implosionflooding/implosion Drugs –yes to antidepressants, no to tranquillizers (valium) Cognitive –thinking, rumination, worry Exercise/Progressive Muscle Relaxation/Yoga Next
Exposure Therapy hierarchy of fearful stimuli learn relaxation methods gradual exposure to imagined stimuli in relaxed state substitute real stimuli Joseph Wolpe