5 of 50 Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding: Converting information into a useable form Storage: Holding this information in memory Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage Memory: Key Terms
6 of 50 Stages of Memory 1.Sensory Memory 2.Short-Term Memory 3.Long-Term Memory
7 of 50 Sensory Memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for less than a second; the first stage of memory Icon: A fleeting mental image or visual representation Echo: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the sound in the auditory system Sensory Memory
8 of 50 A Little Demonstration of Sensory Memory See in class!
9 of 50 A Little Demonstration of Sensory Memory See in class!
10 of 50 Short-Term Memory (STM): second stage of memory; stores small amounts of information briefly; very sensitive to interruption or interference Phonetically: Storing information by sound; how most things are stored in STM Memory Span: STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once Chunk: Meaningful units of information in memory Short-Term Memory (STM)
11 of 50 Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information in STM Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM Elaborative Rehearsal: Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM; Good way to transfer STM information into LTM Storing Info in STM
12 of 50 A Little Demonstration of Short-Term Memory See in class!
13 of 50 A Little Demonstration of Short-Term Memory See in class!
14 of 50 A Little Demonstration of Chunking See in class!
15 of 50 Long-Term Memory (LTM) Storing information relatively permanently Stored on basis of meaning and importance Long-Term Memory (LTM)
16 of 50 Explicit (declarative) memory (facts): factual knowledge & personal experiences Semantic Memory: Impersonal facts and everyday knowledge Episodic Memory: Personal experiences linked with specific times and places Implicit (procedural) Memory (skills): Long-term memories of conditioned responses and learned skills, e.g., driving Types of Long-Term Memory
17 of 50 Example: Skill vs. Fact Memory Amnesiac patient was able to solve tower puzzle in 31 moves (minimum possible), but each time he began, he swore he couldn’t solve the puzzle. Evidence that skill memory and fact memory are separate and distinct.
18 of 50 Graphic: Patterns of Blood Flow in Cerebral Cortex Front of brain is related to episodic memory. Back of brain is related to semantic memory.
20 of 50 Loss of Memory Anterograde amnesia: the inability to form new explicit long- term memories for events following brain trauma or surgery. Explicit memories formed before are left intact. Cause possibly is damage to hippocampus Retrograde amnesia: the disruption of memory for the past, especially espisodic memory. After brain trauma or surgery, there often is retrograde amnesia for events occurring just before. Infantile/child amnesia: the inability as adults to remember events that occurred in our lives before about 3 years of age. Due possibly to fact that hippocampus is not fully developed.
21 of 50 Recall: Direct retrieval of facts or information Serial Position Effect: Hardest to recall items in the middle of a list Primacy effect: easier to remember items first in a list than items in the middle, because first items are studied the most Recency effect: easier to remember items last in a list than items in the middle, because the last items were last studied Serial Position Effect
26 of 50 Comparison of Three Stages of Memory Sensory 1.Large capacity 2.Contains sensory information 3.Very brief retention (1/2 sec for visual; 2 secs for auditory) Short Term 1.Limited capacity 2.Acoustically encoded 3.Brief storage (up to 30 seconds w/o rehearsal) 4.Conscious processing of information Long Term 1.Unlimited capacity 2.Semantically encoded 3.Storage presumed permanent 4.Information highly organized
28 of 50 Types of Processing Automatic processing: memory processing that occurs subconsciously and does not require attention. Example: How many of you can sing the theme song for Gilligan’s Island? How many learned it on purpose? Effortful processing: memory processing that occurs consciously and requires attention Example: How many of you can name all of the divisions of the nervous system? How many learned it on purpose?
29 of 50 Levels-of-Processing Theory Levels-of-processing theory: a theory of information processing in memory that assumes that semantic processing leads to better long-term memory Physical memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it is spelt, b – i – r – t – h – d – a – y Acoustic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by the way it sounds Semantic memory processing: encoding the word “birthday” by its meaning, “a day of joy and celebration commemorating the anniversary of one’s birth.”
30 of 50 Factors Affecting Encoding Encoding specificity principle: the principle that the environmental cues present at the time information is encoded into long-term memory serve as the best retrieval cues for the information. State-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s physiological state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same. Mood-dependent memory: long-term memory retrieval is best when a person’s mood state at the time of encoding and retrieval is the same. Mood-congruence effect: long-term memory retrieval is best for experiences and information that are congruent with a person’s current mood.
32 of 50 Improving Encoding Mnemonics: a memory aid Method of loci: a mnemonic in which sequential pieces of information are encoded by associating them with sequential locations in a very familiar room or location. Peg-word system: a mnemonic in which the items in a list to be remembered are associated with the sequential items in a memorized jingle (“Every good boy does fine”) Spacing (distributed study) effect: long-term memory is better when spaced study is used than when massed study (cramming) is used
34 of 50 Recall: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that requires the reproduction of the information with essentially no retrieval cues. Recognition: a measure of long-term memory retrieval that only requires the identification of the information in the presence of retrieval cues. Relearning: the savings method of measuring long-term memory retrieval, in which the measure is the amount of time saved when learning information for the second time. Measuring Retrieval
35 of 50 Example: Recall versus Recognition Example of Recall: The process of storing information in memory is called ______________. Example of Recognition: The process of storing information in memory is called: a. rehearsalb. deep processing c. encodingd. retrieval
36 of 50 Encoding failure theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the failure to encode the information into long-term memory Forgetting Due to Encoding Failure?
38 of 50 Which is the Real Penny? See in class!
39 of 50 Storage decay theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the decay of physical traces of the information in the brain; periodically using the information helps to maintain it in the brain The “Use it or lose it” theory! Forgetting Due to Decay in Storage?
41 of 50 Interference theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to other information in memory interfering Proactive interference: old information interferes with the retrieval of newly-stored information Retroactive Interference: newly-stored information interferes with the retrieval of previously-stored information Forgetting Due to Interference?
42 of 50 Retroactive vs. Proactive Interference
43 of 50 Graph: Effect of Interference Percent recalled dependent on number of previous lists memorized
44 of 50 Cue-dependent theory: a theory that proposes that forgetting is due to the unavailability of the retrieval cues necessary to locate the information in long-term memory. This is one explanation for why we do not seem to have many memories from early childhood (ages 3 to 6 or so) Forgetting Due to Loss of Cues?
46 of 50 Knowledge of Results: Feedback allowing you to check your progress Recitation: Summarizing aloud while you are learning Rehearsal: Reviewing information mentally (silently) Selection: Selecting most important concepts to memorize Organization: Organizing difficult items into chunks; a type of reordering Some Ways to Improve Memory
47 of 50 Whole Learning: Studying an entire package of information at once, like a poem Part Learning: Studying subparts of a larger body of information (like text chapters) Progressive Part Learning: Breaking learning task into a series of short sections Serial Position Effect: Making most errors while remembering the middle of the list Overlearning: Studying is continued beyond bare mastery More Ways to Improve Memory
48 of 50 Spaced Practice: Alternating study sessions with brief rest periods Massed Practice: Studying for long periods without rest periods Lack of sleep decreases retention; sleep aids consolidation Hunger decreases retention Yet More Ways to Improve Memory
50 of 50 Mnemonics: Memory “tricks”; any kind of memory system or aid - Using mental pictures - Making things meaningful - Making information familiar - Forming bizarre, unusual or exaggerated mental associations A Last Method to Help Memory