TESOL3 Comparison Content-based, Task- based, Participatory Do not begin with functions Priority on process “ use English to learn English ” (Howatt, 1984) Teaching through communication CLT Focus on giving Ss opportunities to practice using communicative function “ Learning to use English ” Teaching for communication
TESOL4 Content Based Approach 1. ESP: English for Special Purposes 2. Courses with content relevant to particular profession/academic discipline 3. Examples: 4. Contribution: Integrates language learning with learning of academic content 5. Ss “ get two for one ” --content knowledge & increased language proficiency 5. Condition: Should provide clear objectives for both language and content
TESOL5 Content Based Approach- Principles 1. Using subject matter content 2. Content based on Ss ’ previous experiences 3. More relevance=Higher motivation 4. Scaffolding the linguistic content 5. Language as medium to convey informational content of interest 6. Vocabulary better learned with contextual clues to convey mearning
TESOL6 Content Based Approach- Principles 7. Provide language support to learn authentic subject matter 8. Work with meaningful & cognitively demanding language and content 9. Communicative competence involves more than using language conversationally. Also includes reading, discussion, and writing.
TESOL7 Content Based Approach- Models 1. L2 immersion model: Subjects learned through the medium of L2 2. Adjunct model: Enroll in regular courses Take language courses linked to content courses: help Ss process the language to understand content help Ss complete academic tasks (note-taking, writing, reading, etc.)
TESOL8 Content Based Approach- Models 3. Sheltered-language model: Native and non-native speakers together “ Sheltered ” instruction with particular materials and techniques provided L2 Ss don ’ t have to postpone academic learning Higher motivations
TESOL10 Whole-Language-Approach 1. Similar philosophy 2. Language regarded holistically, not pieces 3. Ss work “ top-down ”, not “ buttom-up ” 4. Ts provide content-rich curriculum See errors not as part of learning Learning best served by collaboration among Ts and Ss 5. Examples: Reading: Language Experience Approach Writing: process writing & journal keeping
TESOL11 Task-Based Instruction 1. Aim: To provide Ss with natural context for language use. Ss work to complete a tasks Ss have opportunities to interact check to see if have comprehension seek clarification 2. “ Central purpose we are concerned with this language learning, and tasks present this in the form of a problem-solving negotiation between knowledge that the learner holds and new knowledge. ” (Candlin & Murphy, 1987)
TESOL12 Principles: 1. Activities with a purpose and clear outcome 2. Pre-task 3. Break down logical thinking into smaller steps 4. Ts seek ways to know Ss ’ involvements 5. Questions switches 6. Ts reformulate Ss ’ reactions to supply the correct target form 7. Ss receive feedback on levels of success 8. Ss have input into the design and product
TESOL13 Discussions: 1. Three types of tasks (1) information-gap activity (2) Opinion-gap activity (3) Reasoning-gap activity 2. Project Work Approach Example
TESOL14 Participatory Approach 1. Content based on issues of Ss ’ concerns, not content of subject matter texts 2. Goal: Help Ss to understand the social, historical, cultural forces that affects their lives, Empower Ss to take action and make decisions to gain control over their lives
TESOL15 Principles 1. Content connect with what happen outside 2. Content should be relevant to Ss 3. Curriculum as ongoing context-specific problem-posing process 4. Experience-oriented 5. Ts are co-learners. 6. Knowledge as tool to help Ss find voice and act in the world. 7. Lang. Skills taught in service of action for change, rather than in isolation.
TESOL16 Principles 8. Ss create their own materials and later become text for other Ss. 9. For Ss to evaluate their own learning
TESOL17 Learning Strategy Training 1. Begin in early 1970s 2. Good language learners: 3. Learning strategies: “ the techniques or devices which a learner may use to acquire knowledge ” (Rubin, 1975) 4. Identifying learning strategies is not enough. Ss need to be “ trained ” in learning strategies. 5. Goal: To improve their learning effectiveness.
TESOL18 Principles 1. Build upon Ss ’ prior knowledge and learning experience 2. Study certain learning strategies will contribute to learning success. 3. Ts ’ job: not only to teach language, but to teach learning. 4. For Ss, strategies have to be learned. Best way to do this is through “ hands-on ” 5. Ss need to become independent, self- regulated, do self-assessments. 6. Transfer strategies
TESOL19 Discussions 1. Strategies should be taught as part of the content-area of language curriculum, not in isolation. (content-based) 2. Benefit: Ss can continue to learn after complete the tasks. 3. Metacognitive strategies 4. Cognitive strategies 5. Social/affective strategies 6. Examples
TESOL20 Cooperative Learning 1. Ss learn from each other in groups. 2. Important: the way Ss and Ts work together 3. Ts teach Ss collaborative or social skills so that they can work together more effectively. 4. Not only a way of learning, but also a theme to be communicated about the studied.
TESOL21 Principles 1. Ss are encouraged to think cooperatively, not competitively or individualistically 2. Ss stay in the same groups for better work. 3. Groups are mixed. 4. Efforts of individual help the others in the class to be rewarded. 5. Social skills need to be taught: acknowledging/asking for contributions and calm conversations need to be trained.
TESOL22 Principles 6. Language acquisition facilitated by L2 interactions 7. Responsibility and accountability for each other ’ s learning is shared. 8. Each one feels responsible for learning. Leadership is distributed. 9. Ts teach cooperation as well.
TESOL23 Multiple Intelligences 1. Has been influential in language teaching circles. 2. Seven distinct intelligences: Logical/mathematical Visual/spatial Body/kinesthetic Musical/rhythmic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Verbal/linguistic.
TESOL24 Multiple Intelligences 3. Not equally developed in any one 4. Ts need to create activities that draw on all seven. 5. Ts need to think about the activities that are frequently used in the classroom and categorize them according to intelligence type. 6. Examples: on page 170 7. Lesson plan: on page 171