1 Angela Ho, EDC Chan Chi Hung, Learning to Learn Project
2 What Deficiencies in Cognitive Learning do Students Have? What can the interview excerpts tell us?
3 Deficiencies in Cognitive Learning Demonstrated by Many Students Lacking thinking abilities, resulting in Reliance on memorization, frequently without understanding, leading to Giving ‘quantitative answers’ which stuff in as much information as possible, instead of producing ‘quality answers’ which demonstrate understanding
4 Students have expressed the need for “improving our thinking process” To know the aims of learning To set learning goals Improve our thinking process Skills to answer questions Learn to apply in daily life To know more about real world situations How to learn efficiently & effectively, i.e. less time to learn more, less effort to get more returns Learn the different ways for learning different subjects e.g. ICT, IT (Perceived needs for Learning to Learn, ENGL, 2001)
5 For the Success of Your Study Addressing the issues of Deficiency in higher order thinking abilities Reliance on memorization of information Answers which resemble a ‘ laundry list ’ which shows little understanding
7 Underpinning theories Quantitative conception Qualitative conception Conceptions of learning Quantitative conception : increase in knowledge Qualitative conception : achieve genuine understanding deep approach VS surface approach Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) Approaches to learning Concept: deep approach VS surface approach Instrument: Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) SOLO taxonomy
8 SOLO Taxonomy (Biggs & Collins, 1982) (Structure of the Observed Learning Outcomes) Extended abstract Relational Multistructural Unistructural Prestructural
9 Low level answers and High level answers Reproduce as many points as possible Unrelated Details Reproduce as many points as possible from the notes or the textbook whether with understanding or not. meaningful explanation relatedapplied Relational Understanding The answer should be able to give a meaningful explanation of the topic, showing how things are related and applied. original ideas deep understanding Extended ideas The answer contains original ideas of the student in addition to showing a deep understanding of the topic.
11 Improving from Unrelated Details to Relational Understanding (p.5) Unrelated Details Relational Understanding Improving from Unrelated details to Relational Understanding Quantity of information As much as possible adequate thinking Spend more time on thinking. Do NOT simply memorise Relevance of information Irrelevant info also included relevant- Think about meaning - Clarify relationship - Organise into a meaningful structure - Avoid listing facts as unconnected points Organization of information - lack structure - lack linkage - not addressing key issue - coherent structure - show relationship - focus on question asked
12 Improving from Relational Understanding to Extended Ideas (p.6) Relational Understanding Extended Ideas Improving from Relational Understanding to Extended Ideas Understanding Understand the topic Able to relate to other topics - Relate to previous knowledge - Relate theories to experience - try to form own conceptual framework for Integrating knowledge - read widely - discuss with others - reflect on past experience - brainstorm ideas Coverage What has been taught Go beyond what has been taught Structure of the answer Similar to what is taught Develop new structure Problem solving Able to solve similar problems Able to solve new problems
13 Think in this way ! Relational Understanding Contrast Compare Analyze Explain Relate Apply Extended Ideas Reflect Generalize Recommended Hypothesize Theorize
14 Think in this way! To achieve ‘Relational Understanding’ – Think in this way! Thinking task Do this How well am I doing? Example on page CompareShow how things are alike or not alike 5 4 3 2 112 ContrastShow the important difference between things 5 4 3 2 111 ExplainGive the meaning of a topic 5 4 3 2 114 AnalyzeExamine in detail the elements of a topic & how they relate to each other 5 4 3 2 113 RelateShow the ideas are connected to each other 5 4 3 2 115 ApplyMake use of specific knowledge or concepts to deal with a problem 5 4 3 2 116
15 Think in this way! To achieve ‘Extended Ideas’ – Think in this way! Thinking task Do this How well am I doing? Example on page TheorizeForm general principles of an art or science 5 4 3 2 1 / GeneralizeDraw a general conclusion from a collection of facts 5 4 3 2 1 18 HypothesizePropose an idea which can be used as a starting point for further study 5 4 3 2 1 20 Recommen d Suggest on what is the best thing to do based on critical evaluation of available information 5 4 3 2 1 19 ReflectShow new understanding & value of something by studying past experience 5 4 3 2 1 17
16 Examples of Good Answers -- How the Thinking Tasks are done? Description of the thinking task The question What students commonly do (characteristics of mediocre / poor answers) An example of good work with annotation Recommend (p.20) Suggest what is appropriate to do based on a critical evaluation of available information
17 What do students say about “ For the success of your study ”? This is the first booklet I’ve come across which is so systematically written to tell me what to do in my learning. In the past, I tried my best to put in everything which I thought the teacher wanted. Now I realise that I need to select and organise. Teachers asked me to elaborate but I didn’t know how to. Now the thinking tasks have inspired me what to do. I started to realise why those classmates who explained their steps in calculation got better results than me. I used to focus on calculating the answer only.
18 achieve higher level learning Helping students to achieve higher level learning – Simple things teachers can do Three scenarios grading criteria Briefing students on grading criteria for assignments feedback Providing feedback on students’ work self-evaluation of their learning Engaging students in self-evaluation of their learning
19 Briefing students on grading criteria for assignments Engage students in discussing 1.What determines thegrade 1.What determines the grade of an answer? three levels of learning outcomes 2.the three levels of learning outcomes 3.Examples 3.Examples of the three levels of answers – given with teacher’s comments 4.Examples 4.Examples of the three levels of answers – given for students discussion and comments thinking tasks 5.Emphasis on thinking – the thinking tasks Complete Table 5.2 Study Examples of Good answers
20 feedback Providing feedback on students’ work comments highlighting how the answers demonstrate thinking and understanding 1.Distribute for discussion, good answers with comments highlighting how the answers demonstrate thinking and understanding. bank of good examples with comments 2.Build a bank of good examples with comments for your subject the programme
21 self-evaluation of their learning Engaging students in self-evaluation of their learning 1.Completing self-evaluation checklists on the performance of thinking tasks 2.Reflection on development as a learner by comparing pre- and post- tests of “Thinking about learning” (p.1 and p.9 of handbook) Study Process Questionnaire