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Topic: Listening Comprehension

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1 Topic: Listening Comprehension
General objectives: Students will be able to teach listening comprehension with communicative approach. Students will be able to integrate listening with speaking, reading and writing.

2 Lesson One Communicative Approaches to Listening Comprehension
Pre-task activities Step One: elicit Kinds of real-life listening Step Two: elicit characteristics of Real-life listening Step Three: introduce two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-down Step Four: identifying different types of listening texts. Step Five: elicit difficulties in listening to English as a foreign language. Step Six: tips in design a listen task While-task activities Step Seven: students giving a lesson of listening comprehension. Post-task activities Step Eight: students evaluate the lessons.

3 1. Real-life listening 1.1 Kinds of real-life listening 1.2 Characteristics of Real-life listening 1.3 Two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-down 2. Listening to English as a foreign language. 2.1 Identifying different types of listening 2.2 Difficulties in listening to English as a foreign language. 3. How to design a listening tasks?

4 1.1 Kinds of real life listening
Telephone conversations Lectures Instructions Movies Songs Radio Television ……

5 1.2 Characteristics of Real-life listening
l    Spontaneity l        Purpose and expectation l        Response l       Speaker’s adjustment l        Context l Visual clues l        Shortness l        Informal speech Redundancy Noise Colloquial language Auditory character

6 1.3 Two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-down
Listeners segment the stream of speech into its constituent sounds, link these together to form words, chain the words together to form clauses and sentences and so on . The view is known as the bottom-up approach to listening, The use of inside the head knowledge, that is knowledge which is not directly encoded in words is known as the top-down view of listening.

7 2. Listening to English as a foreign language 2
2. Listening to English as a foreign language 2.1 A classification of aural texts Aural texts   Monologue Dialogue Planned Unplanned interpersonal Transactional Recorded video-taped live Planned Unplanned Planned Unplanned Unfamiliar Familiar U F U F U F R V L R V L R V L R V L R V L

8 2.2 Difficulties in listening to English as a foreign language
l Hearing the sounds l Understanding intonation and stress l Coping with redundancy and background‘noise’ l Speed l Heard only once l No pause l Predicting l Understanding colloquial vocabulary l Fatigue l Understanding different accents l Simultaneously tasks

9 3.How to design a listening tasks?
l        A pre-set purpose l        Motivation l        Success l        Simplicity l        Feedback l        Visual materials l  Combining listening and speaking

10 Suggestions for classroom activities
Listening for perception Listening for comprehension

11 Listening for perception
At word-level Oral activities Reading and writing activities Meaning-based activities At sentence-level

12 At word-level Oral activities (1) repetition
(2)    which category (man men ) ? pen cat rap (3) same or different ? pin pin bin pin Reading and wring activities (1)Reading the right words A. bat B. bet C.but (2) writing the right words

13 At sentence-level Oral activities (1) repetition
(2)    identifying word-divisions (how many words) Reading and wring activities (1) identifying stress and unstress eg I’m ˊterribly ˊtired. Iˊthink I’ll go and have a ˊrest. (2) identifying intonation ……………………………………………….. (3)    dictation

14 Listening for comprehension
Listening and making no response Listening and making short response Listening and making longer response Listening as a basis for study and discussion

15 Listening and making no response
Following a written text Listening to a familiar text Listening aided by visuals Informal teacher-talk Entertainment

16 Listening and making short response
(1)    obeying instructions a, physical movement b, constructing models c, picture dictation (2)    ticking off items (3)    true/false exercises (4)    detecting mistakes (5)    aural cloze (6)    guessing definitions (7)    noting specific information

17 Listening and making short response
(8)    pictures a, identifying and ordering b, altering and marking (9)    maps a, naming features b, alterations (10)ground-plan (11)grids (12)family tree (13)graphs


19 Grid

20 graph

21 ground-plan

22 Listening and making longer responses
Repetition and dictation Paraphrase Translation Answering questions Answering comprehension questions on texts Predictions Filling gaps Note taking Summarizing

23 Listening as a basis for study and discussion
Problem-solving Jigsaw listening Interpretative listening Evaluative and stylistic analysis

24 Lesson Two The Dictogloss Approach
Pre-task activities Step One: preparation While-task activities Step Two: dictation Step Three: reconstruction . Post-task activities Step Four: Analysis and correction.

25 The dictogloss approach
1. Preparation 2. Dictation 3. Reconstruction 4. Analysis and correction.

26 1. Preparation. At this stage. teachers prepare students for the text they will be hearing by asking questions and discussing a stimulus picture. by discussing vocabulary ,by ensuring that students know what they are supposed to do and by ensuring that the students are in the appropriate groups.

27 2. Dictation Learners hear the dictation twice. The first time. they listen only and get a general feeling for the text. The second time they take down notes. Being encouraged to listen for content words which will assist them in reconstructing the text. For reasons of consistency, it is preferable that students listen lo a cassette recording rather than teacher-read text

28 3. Reconstruction At the conclusion of the dictation, learners pool notes and produce their version of the text . During this stage it is important that the teacher does not provide any language input.

29 4. Analysis and correction
There arc various ways of dealing with this stage. The small group versions can be reproduced on the board or overhead projector. The texts can be photocopied and distributed or the students can compare their version with the original sentence by sentence .

30 Advantages of dictogloss
The dictogloss technique provides a useful bridge between bottom-up and top-down listening. In the first instance, learners are primarily concerned with identifying individual elements in the text - a bottom-up strategy. However, during the small group discussions, some or all of the following top-down strategies might be employed. In all of these the listener will integrate background. `inside the head' knowledge with the clues picked up during the dictation . 1 . Listeners will make predictions. 2. Listeners will make inferences about things not directly stated in the text 3. Listeners will identify the topic of the text. 4. Listeners will identify the text type (whether it is a narrative. description. anecdote etc. ). 5. Listeners will identify various sorts of semantic relationships in the text

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