Presentation on theme: "Topic: Listening Comprehension"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topic: Listening Comprehension General objectives:Students will be able to teach listening comprehension with communicative approach.Students will be able to integrate listening with speaking, reading and writing.
2 Lesson One Communicative Approaches to Listening Comprehension Pre-task activitiesStep One: elicit Kinds of real-life listeningStep Two: elicit characteristics of Real-life listeningStep Three: introduce two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-downStep Four: identifying different types of listening texts.Step Five: elicit difficulties in listening to Englishas a foreign language.Step Six: tips in design a listen taskWhile-task activitiesStep Seven: students giving a lesson of listening comprehension.Post-task activitiesStep Eight: students evaluate the lessons.
3 1. Real-life listening1.1 Kinds of real-life listening1.2 Characteristics of Real-life listening1.3 Two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-down2. Listening to English as aforeign language.2.1 Identifying different types of listening2.2 Difficulties in listening to Englishas a foreign language.3. How to design a listening tasks?
4 1.1 Kinds of real life listening Telephone conversationsLecturesInstructionsMoviesSongsRadioTelevision……
5 1.2 Characteristics of Real-life listening l Spontaneityl Purpose and expectationl Responsel Speaker’s adjustmentl Contextl Visual cluesl Shortnessl Informal speechRedundancyNoiseColloquial languageAuditory character
6 1.3 Two approaches to listening--- Bottom-up and top-down Listeners segment the stream of speech into its constituent sounds, link these together to form words, chain the words together to form clauses and sentences and so on . The view is known as the bottom-up approach to listening,The use of inside the head knowledge, that is knowledge which is not directly encoded in words is known as the top-down view of listening.
7 2. Listening to English as a foreign language 2 2. Listening to English as a foreign language 2.1 A classification of aural textsAural texts Monologue DialoguePlanned Unplanned interpersonal TransactionalRecorded video-taped live Planned Unplanned Planned UnplannedUnfamiliar Familiar U F U F U FR V L R V L R V L R V L R V L
8 2.2 Difficulties in listening to English as a foreign language l Hearing the soundsl Understanding intonation and stressl Coping with redundancy and background‘noise’l Speedl Heard only oncel No pausel Predictingl Understanding colloquial vocabularyl Fatiguel Understanding different accentsl Simultaneously tasks
9 3.How to design a listening tasks? l A pre-set purposel Motivationl Successl Simplicityl Feedbackl Visual materialsl Combining listening and speaking
10 Suggestions for classroom activities Listening for perceptionListening for comprehension
11 Listening for perception At word-levelOral activitiesReading and writing activitiesMeaning-based activitiesAt sentence-level
12 At word-level Oral activities (1) repetition (2) which category (man men ) ? pen cat rap(3) same or different ? pin pin bin pinReading and wring activities(1)Reading the right wordsA. bat B. bet C.but(2) writing the right words
13 At sentence-level Oral activities (1) repetition (2) identifying word-divisions (how many words)Reading and wring activities(1) identifying stress and unstress egI’m ˊterribly ˊtired. Iˊthink I’ll go and have a ˊrest.(2) identifying intonation………………………………………………..(3) dictation
14 Listening for comprehension Listening and making no responseListening and making short responseListening and making longer responseListening as a basis for study and discussion
15 Listening and making no response Following a written textListening to a familiar textListening aided by visualsInformal teacher-talkEntertainment
16 Listening and making short response (1) obeying instructionsa, physical movementb, constructing modelsc, picture dictation(2) ticking off items(3) true/false exercises(4) detecting mistakes(5) aural cloze(6) guessing definitions(7) noting specific information
17 Listening and making short response (8) picturesa, identifying and orderingb, altering and marking(9) mapsa, naming featuresb, alterations(10)ground-plan(11)grids(12)family tree(13)graphs
22 Listening and making longer responses Repetition and dictationParaphraseTranslationAnswering questionsAnswering comprehension questions on textsPredictionsFilling gapsNote takingSummarizing
23 Listening as a basis for study and discussion Problem-solvingJigsaw listeningInterpretative listeningEvaluative and stylistic analysis
24 Lesson Two The Dictogloss Approach Pre-task activitiesStep One: preparationWhile-task activitiesStep Two: dictationStep Three: reconstruction .Post-task activitiesStep Four: Analysis and correction.
25 The dictogloss approach 1. Preparation2. Dictation3. Reconstruction4. Analysis and correction.
26 1. Preparation.At this stage. teachers prepare students for the text they will be hearing by asking questions and discussing a stimulus picture. by discussing vocabulary ,by ensuring that students know what they are supposed to do and by ensuring that the students are in the appropriate groups.
27 2. DictationLearners hear the dictation twice. The first time. they listen only and get a general feeling for the text. The second time they take down notes. Being encouraged to listen for content words which will assist them in reconstructing the text. For reasons of consistency, it is preferable that students listen lo a cassette recording rather than teacher-read text
28 3. ReconstructionAt the conclusion of the dictation, learners pool notes and produce their version of the text . During this stage it is important that the teacher does not provide any language input.
29 4. Analysis and correction There arc various ways of dealing with this stage. The small group versions can be reproduced on the board or overhead projector. The texts can be photocopied and distributed or the students can compare their version with the original sentence by sentence .
30 Advantages of dictogloss The dictogloss technique provides a useful bridge between bottom-up and top-down listening. In the first instance, learners are primarily concerned with identifying individual elements in the text - a bottom-up strategy. However, during the small group discussions, some or all of the following top-down strategies might be employed. In all of these the listener will integrate background. `inside the head' knowledge with the clues picked up during the dictation .1 . Listeners will make predictions.2. Listeners will make inferences about things not directly stated in the text3. Listeners will identify the topic of the text.4. Listeners will identify the text type (whether it is a narrative. description. anecdote etc. ).5. Listeners will identify various sorts of semantic relationships in the text