# Properties of Matter. Matter Matter is what the world is made of. All objects consists of Matter.

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Properties of Matter

Matter Matter is what the world is made of. All objects consists of Matter.

General Properties of Matter include mass, weight, volume, and density

Mass Mass is the measure of inertia of an object and is measured by grams (g) and kilograms (kg)

Weight Weight is the response of mass to the pull of gravity. Metric unit of weight is the newton (N).

mass X 9.8 N = Weight (on earth) What is your weight on earth? (Remember 1 kg = 2.2 lbs)

Volume The amount of space an object takes up is called it’s volume. Volume is measured in liters (L), milliliters (mL), and cubic centimeters (cm^3)

Density Density is the mass per unit volume

density = mass / volume

Problem If 96.5 grams of gold has a volume of 5 cubic centimeters, what is its density?

Solution Step 1 Write the formula d=m/v Step 1 Write the formula d=m/v Step 2 Substitute given numbers and units d=96.5 grams/ 5 cubic centimeters Step 2 Substitute given numbers and units d=96.5 grams/ 5 cubic centimeters Step 3 Solve for unknown variable d= 19.3 grams / cubic centimeters Step 3 Solve for unknown variable d= 19.3 grams / cubic centimeters

Practice Problems 1. If 96.5 grams of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm^3, what is the density of aluminum? 1. If 96.5 grams of aluminum has a volume of 35 cm^3, what is the density of aluminum? 2. If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g / cm^3, what would the mass be if the volume is 0.5 cm^3? 2. If the density of a diamond is 3.5 g / cm^3, what would the mass be if the volume is 0.5 cm^3?

Density Lab Does it Float?

The density of water is 1 gram per milliliter, 1g/mL. The density of water is 1 gram per milliliter, 1g/mL. If the object’s density is greater than 1g/mL, then the object will sink. If the object’s density is greater than 1g/mL, then the object will sink. If the object’s density is less than 1g/mL then it will float. If the object’s density is less than 1g/mL then it will float.

Does it Float? In this activity you will measure the mass and volume of several objects to obtain the objects’ densities. In this activity you will measure the mass and volume of several objects to obtain the objects’ densities. Remember density = mass / volume Remember density = mass / volume Volume of cube= length X width X height Volume of cube= length X width X height Volume of cylinder=pi r^2 h Volume of cylinder=pi r^2 h pi=3.14 pi=3.14

Remember 1 cubic centimeter = 1 mL

Volume of Cylinder Volume = pi r^2 h Volume = pi r^2 h

Volume of a Square or Cube Volume= L x W x H Volume= L x W x H

Lab Report Format Description Mass (g) Volume (mL) Density (g/mL) Does it float?

Phases of Matter

Matter can exist in 4 Phases Solid Solid Liquid Liquid Gas Gas Plasma Plasma

Solids Crystalline Solids- particles are arranged in regular repeating patterns called crystals (i.e. salt, quartz) Crystalline Solids- particles are arranged in regular repeating patterns called crystals (i.e. salt, quartz) Amorphous solids- solids that lose their shape under certain conditions (i.e. tar, candle wax, glass) Amorphous solids- solids that lose their shape under certain conditions (i.e. tar, candle wax, glass)

Crystals

Amorphous Solids: Candle Wax

Liquids Particles in a liquid are close together but are free to move. Particles in a liquid are close together but are free to move. Have no definite shape but takes the shape of the container. Have no definite shape but takes the shape of the container. Have a definite volume. Have a definite volume. Resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity. Resistance of a liquid to flow is called viscosity.

Liquid

Gases Do not have a definite shape or definite volume. Do not have a definite shape or definite volume. Boyle’s Law – if volume is reduced pressure will increase. P1V1=P2V2 or P1/P2=V1/V2 Boyle’s Law – if volume is reduced pressure will increase. P1V1=P2V2 or P1/P2=V1/V2 Charles’s Law – if temperature of a gas changes but pressure is the same, then volume of the gas changes. T1V2=T2V1 or T1/T2=V1/V2 Charles’s Law – if temperature of a gas changes but pressure is the same, then volume of the gas changes. T1V2=T2V1 or T1/T2=V1/V2

Gas

Plasma Rare on earth. Rare on earth. The most common phase in the universe. The most common phase in the universe. Stars have matter in plasma phase (i.e. sun’s solar flare) Stars have matter in plasma phase (i.e. sun’s solar flare) Matter in plasma phase is high in energy and dangerous to living things. Matter in plasma phase is high in energy and dangerous to living things.

Plasma

Plasma

Phases of Matter Quiz How many phases can matter exist? How many phases can matter exist? Name the phases of matter. Name the phases of matter. What is a crystalline solid? Give an example. What is a crystalline solid? Give an example.

Quiz What kind of solid is in the picture? What kind of solid is in the picture?

Quiz What kind of matter phase is in the picture? What kind of matter phase is in the picture?

Name the Phase

Phase Changes Melting Melting Freezing Freezing Vaporization Vaporization Condensation Condensation Sublimation Sublimation

Phase Changes are Physical Changes

Solid to Liquid Melting- is the change from solid to liquid Melting- is the change from solid to liquid

Melting Point The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid. Aluminum MP=660 °C Aluminum MP=660 °C

Liquid To Solid Freezing- Occurs when a substance looses heat energy. Freezing- Occurs when a substance looses heat energy.

Freezing Point The temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid The temperature at which a liquid changes to a solid Water FP=0 °C Water FP=0 °C

Liquid to Gas Vaporization- the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas Vaporization- the change of a substance from a liquid to a gas

Evaporation Vaporization at the surface of a liquid Vaporization at the surface of a liquid

Boiling Process by which particles inside the liquid travel into the air. Process by which particles inside the liquid travel into the air.

Boiling Point Temperature at which a liquid boils. Temperature at which a liquid boils. BP of a liquid is related to pressure above it. BP of a liquid is related to pressure above it. Water BP= 100 °C Water BP= 100 °C Table Salt BP= 1413 °C Table Salt BP= 1413 °C Diamond BP= 4200 °C Diamond BP= 4200 °C

Gas to Liquid Condensation Condensation

Solid to Gas Sublimation Sublimation

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