# Wireless Networking Radio Frequency and Antenna Fundamentals Module-02 Jerry Bernardini Community College of Rhode Island 6/15/2015Wireless Networking.

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Wireless Networking Radio Frequency and Antenna Fundamentals Module-02 Jerry Bernardini Community College of Rhode Island 6/15/2015Wireless Networking J. Bernardini1

Presentation Reference Material CWNA Certified Wireless Network Administration Official Study Guide, Fourth Edition, Tom Carpenter, Joel Barrett – Chapter-2, pp.35-65 The California Regional Consortium for Engineering Advances in Technological Education (CREATE) project 6/15/2015Wireless Networking J. Bernardini2

Radio and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Radio frequencies are part of the electromagnetic spectrum 6/15/2015Wireless Networking J. Bernardini3

Early Radio 6/15/2015Wireless Networking J. Bernardini4 1895 Marconi was not the first 1906 Reginald Fessenden, 11 miles lad to sea 1927 First transatlantic telephone 1924 Bell Labs two-way voice carrying radio Radio first used for voice and broadcast Then used by military

Radio Frequency Radio frequency, (RF) is a term that refers to alternating current, (AC) having characteristics such that, if the current is input to an antenna, an electromagnetic (EM) field/wave is generated suitable for wireless communications. AC Signal Transmission Line Antenna and Tower EM Wave

EM Waves 6/15/2015Wireless Networking J. Bernardini6 Electromagnetic waves are made up of electric wave and magnetic waves at right angles The wave moves at right angle to the electric and magnetic waves In a vacuum the wave moves at the speed of light (3x10 8 meter/sec) Electric field is the force on an electric charge A moving electric field will produce a moving magnetic field, which produces a moving electric field, ad infinitum

Sine Wave Cycle Amplitude Time 1 Cycle Period,  F = 1 

RF Properties Amplitude - The amount of a signal. Amplitude is measured by determining the amount of fluctuation in air pressure for sound or the voltage of an electrical signal. Amplitude Time Waveform A Waveform B

RF Properties Frequency -The number of repetitions per unit time of a complete waveform, measured in Hertz. The number of complete oscillations per second of electromagnetic radiation. Amplitude Time  = Period F = 1/  A B

RF Properties Wavelength, -The distance that a wave travels in the time it takes to go through one full 360 degree phase change, or one cycle. Amplitude Distance

Wavelength 1 Wavelength, = 300,000,000 m/s Frequency (Hz) = 984,000,000 f/s Frequency (Hz) In a Vacuum = 300,000,000 m/s 2.45 GHz = 0.122 m = 12.2 cm

RF Properties Phase,  - Time based relationship between a periodic function and a reference. In electricity, it is expressed in angular degrees to describe the voltage or current relationship of two alternating waveforms. Amplitude  Time 00 Unit Circle

RF Properties Polarization – By convention the orientation of the electric field, (E) with respect to the earth’s surface. Vertical, Horizontal, and Circular/Elliptical polarization. P H E E E E AB C D E

RF Properties Polarization – By convention the orientation of the electric field, (E) with respect to the earth’s surface. Vertical, Horizontal, and Circular/Elliptical polarization. AB C Earth/Ground Reference D E Ceiling

RF Spectrum DesignationAbbreviationFrequencies Ultra High FrequencyUHF300 MHz - 3 GHz Super High FrequencySHF 3 GHz - 30 GHz Very Low Frequency - Extremely High Frequency VLF - EHF9 kHz – 300 GHz

US Frequency Allocation Chart National Telecommunications and Information Administration. http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/allochrt.html 9 kHz 300 GHz 802.11 a, b, g AM Radio FM Radio 535-1605 kHz 88-108 MHz

Amplification and Attenuation Amplification/Gain - An increase in signal level, amplitude or magnitude of a signal. A device that does this is called an amplifier. Attenuation/Loss - A decrease in signal level, amplitude, or magnitude of a signal. A device that does this is called an attenuator.

Amplification / Gain 100 mW RF Amplifier 1 W Signal Source Antenna INPUT OUTPUT The power gain of the RF amplifier is a power ratio. Power Gain = = = 10 no units Power Output Power Input 1 W 100 mW

Attenuation / Loss 100 mW RF Attenuator 50 mW Signal Source Antenna INPUT OUTPUT The power loss of the RF attenuator is a power ratio. Power Loss = = = 0.5 no units Power Output Power Input 50 mW 100 mW

Attenuation of an EM wave Attenuation/Loss - A decrease in signal level, amplitude, or magnitude of a signal.

Parameters & Units of Measure Power - The rate at which work is done, expressed as the amount of work per unit time. Watt - An International System unit of power equal to one joule per second. The power dissipated by a current of 1 ampere flowing between 1 volt of differential.

EIRP Access Point Point APoint B Parabolic Antenna Point C Point A – Output of AP Point B – Intentional Radiator Point C – Radiated wave from antenna (transducer) Effective Isotropic Radiated Power

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio VSWR - is a measure of how well the components of the RF system are matched in impedance. VSWR is the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage in a standing wave. For maximum power transfer the ideal VSWR is 1.

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio 50  Output impedance of AP is 50  Impedance of cable is 50  Input impedance of antenna is 50  The impedances are matched so the VSWR = 1

Basic Properties of EM waves Reflection – cast off or turn back, (bouncing).

Basic Properties of EM waves Refraction - deflection from a straight path, (bending through a medium). Earth Atmosphere Refracted Wave Path Straight-Line Wave Path Sky Wave Antenna

Basic Properties of EM waves Diffraction – Change in the directions and intensities of a group of waves when they pass near the edge of an EM opaque object, (bending around object). Transmitter Receiver Building Shadow Zone Diffracted Signal

Basic Properties of EM waves Interference - hinders, obstructs, or impedes. When two or more wave fronts meet, (colliding). Direct Wave Multipath Interference Reflected Wave

Basic Properties of EM waves Scattering – A specification of the angular distribution of the electromagnetic energy scattered by a particle or a scattering medium, (dispersion). Incident Wave

Basic Properties of EM waves Absorption – The process in which incident radiant energy is retained by a substance by conversion to some other form of energy. Incident Wave Drywall Concrete

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