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Memory Design Example. Selecting Memory Chip Selecting SRAM Memory Chip.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory Design Example. Selecting Memory Chip Selecting SRAM Memory Chip."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory Design Example

2 Selecting Memory Chip

3 Selecting SRAM Memory Chip

4 SRAM Memory Chips

5 SRAM Memory Chip - 1K X 4

6 1K X 4 SRAM (Part Number 2114N)



9 Memory Design – 1K x 4 A[00:09]   D[03:00] Addr Block Select 

10 Memory Design – 1K x 8 A[00:09]    D[07:04] A[00:09]    D[03:00] Addr Block Select => D[07:04] D[03:00]

11 Memory Design - 2k x 8 D[07:04] D[03:00] Block x..x1y…y Block x..x0y…y

12 Memory Design - 4k x 8 D[07:04] D[03:00] Block x..x11y…y Block x..x10y…y Block x..x01y…y Block x..x00y…y

13 Chapter 8 Operating System Support HW: 8.8, 15, 17 (Due 11/13)

14 Objectives of Operating System Convenience —Making the computer easier to use Efficiency —Allowing better use of computer resources Functions: Managing Resources Scheduling Processes (or tasks) Managing Memory

15 Layers and Views of a Computer System

16 Operating System Services include Program creation Program execution Access to I/O devices Controlled access to files System access Error detection and response Accounting

17 O/S as a Resource Manager

18 Types of Operating System Interactive Batch Single program (Uni-programming) Multi-programming (Multi-tasking)

19 Simple Batch Systems Resident Monitor program Users submit jobs to operator Operator batches jobs Monitor controls sequence of events to process batch When one job is finished, control returns to Monitor which reads next job Monitor handles scheduling

20 Memory Layout for Resident Monitor

21 Job Control Language Instructions to Monitor Usually denoted by $ e.g. —$JOB —$FTN —...High Level Language Program (Fortran, COBOL,... ) —$LOAD —$RUN —...Application Data for program —$END

22 Desirable Hardware Features Memory protection —To protect the Monitor Timer —To prevent a job monopolizing the system Privileged instructions —Only executed by Monitor —e.g. I/O Interrupts —Allows for relinquishing and regaining control

23 Multi-programmed Batch Systems I/O devices are very slow  Waiting is inefficient use of computer When one program is waiting for I/O, another can use the CPU

24 Uni-programmed System

25 Multi-Programming with Three Programs

26 Sample Program Mix

27 Utilization: Uni-programmed vs Multi-programmed

28 Multiprogramming Resource Utilization

29 Some Types of Systems Uniprogramming - One user at a time uses the computer Time Sharing - Allow users to interact directly with the computer —i.e. Interactive Multi-programming - Allows a number of users to interact with the computer

30 Types of Scheduling

31 Five State Process Model

32 Process Control Block

33 Scheduling Sequence Example

34 Key Elements of O/S

35 Process Scheduling

36 Memory Management Uni-programming —Memory split into two —One for Operating System (monitor) —One for currently executing program Multi-programming —“User” part is sub-divided and shared among active processes Note: Memory size -16 bits  64K memory addresses - 24 bits  16M memory addresses - 32 bits  4G memory addresses

37 Swapping Problem: I/O is so slow compared with CPU that even in multi-programming system, CPU can be idle most of the time Solutions: —Increase main memory –Expensive —Swapping

38 What is Swapping? Long term queue of processes stored on disk Processes “swapped” in as space becomes available As a process completes it is moved out of main memory If none of the processes in memory are ready (i.e. all I/O blocked) —Swap out a blocked process to intermediate queue —Swap in a ready process or a new process But swapping is an I/O process… Isn’t I/O slow? So why does swapping make sense ?

39 Use of Swapping

40 Partitioning Partitioning: May not be equal size Splitting memory into sections to allocate to processes (including Operating System!) Fixed-sized partitions —Potentially a lot of wasted memory Variable-sized partitions —Process is fitted into smallest hole that it will fit in Dynamic partitions — no room for additional memory allocation — memory leak – need periodic coalescing, or – need periodic compaction

41 Fixed Partitioning

42 Effect of Dynamic Partitioning

43 Relocation Challenges Can’t expect that process will load into the same place in memory Instructions contain addresses —Locations of data —Addresses for instructions (branching) Logical address - relative to beginning of program Physical address - actual location in memory (this time) Solution: Use Base Address & Automatic (hardware) conversion

44 Paging Split memory into equal sized, small chunks - page frames Operating System maintains list of free frames Split programs (processes) into equal sized small chunks - pages Allocate the required number page frames to a process - A process does not require contiguous page frames - Each process has its page table

45 Allocation of Free Frames

46 Logical and Physical Addresses - Paging

47 Virtual Memory Demand paging —Do not require all pages of a process in memory —Bring in pages as required Page fault —Required page is not in memory —Operating System must swap in required page —May need to swap out a page to make space —Perhaps select page to throw out based on recent history

48 Thrashing Too many processes in too little memory Operating System spends all its time swapping Little or no real work is done Solutions —Good page replacement algorithms —Reduce number of processes running —Add more memory

49 Virtual Memory We do not need all of a process in memory for it to run - We can swap in pages as required So - we can now run processes that are bigger than total memory available! Main memory is called real memory User/programmer can see much bigger memory space - virtual memory

50 Inverted Page Table Structure

51 Translation Lookaside Buffer Every virtual memory reference causes two physical memory access —Fetch page table entry —Fetch data Use special cache for page table(s)

52 TLB and Cache Operation

53 Segmentation Paging is not (usually) visible to the programmer Segmentation is visible to the programmer Usually different segments allocated to program and data May be a number of program and data segments

54 Advantages of Segmentation Simplifies handling of growing data structures Allows programs to be altered and recompiled independently, without re- linking and re-loading Lends itself to sharing among processes Lends itself to protection Some systems combine segmentation with paging

55 Scheduling: uniprogramming multiprogramming time sharing long-term scheduler (long-term scheduling queue) short-term scheduler (short-term scheduling queue) medium-term scheduling (medium-term scheduling queue) new – ready – running – blocked – exit state machine partitioning paging – frames, pages, page fault, page table, logical/physical addr virtual memory – inverted page table, Translation Lookaside Buffer Segmentation OS Review

56 Pentium II (Uses hardware for segmentation & paging) Unsegmented, unpaged —virtual address = physical address —Used in Low complexity, High performance systems Unsegmented, paged —Memory viewed as paged linear address space —Protection and management via paging (Ex: Berkeley UNIX) Segmented, unpaged —Collection of local address spaces —Protection to single byte level, Translation table needed is on chip when segment is in memory, provide predictable access times Segmented, paged —Segmentation used to define logical memory partitions subject to access control —Paging manages allocation of memory within partitions (Ex: Unix System V)

57 Pentium II Address Translation Mechanism

58 Pentium II Segmentation Each virtual address is 16-bit segment and 32-bit offset 2 bits of segment are protection mechanism 14 bits specify segment Unsegmented virtual memory 2 32 = 4Gbytes Segmented 2 46 =64 terabytes —Can be larger – depends on which process is active —Half (8K segments of 4Gbytes) is global —Half is local and distinct for each process

59 Pentium II Protection Protection bits give 4 levels of privilege —0 most protected, 3 least —Use of levels software dependent —Usually level 3 for applications, level 1 for O/S and level 0 for kernel (level 2 not used) —Level 2 may be used for apps that have internal security e.g. database —Some instructions only work in level 0

60 Pentium II Paging Segmentation may be disabled —In which case linear address space is used Two level page table lookup —First, page directory –1024 entries max –Splits 4G linear memory into 1024 page groups of 4Mbyte –Each page table has 1024 entries corresponding to 4Kbyte pages –Can use one page directory for all processes, one per process or mixture –Page directory for current process always in memory —Use TLB holding 32 page table entries —Two page sizes available 4k or 4M

61 PowerPC 32-bit Address Translation

62 PowerPC Memory Management Hardware 32 bit – paging with simple segmentation — or 64 bit paging with more powerful segmentation Or, both do block address translation —Map 4 large blocks of instructions & 4 of memory to bypass paging —e.g. OS tables or graphics frame buffers 32 bit effective address —12 bit byte selector –=4kbyte pages —16 bit page id –64k pages per segment —4 bits indicate one of 16 segment registers –Segment registers under OS control

63 PowerPC 32-bit Memory Management Formats

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