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CHOLERA Kate Ferriola-Bruckenstein
Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine
Cholera is an acute infection of the small intestine Extreme dehydration 100,000-120,000 deaths per year
The cause of cholera was identified by Robert Koch in 1883 Vibrio cholerae
We have known about the disease for almost 200 years India-1817
Cholera is spread by ingestion of contaminated food or water
Because of modern sanitation and treatment of drinking water it’s not an issue in the developed world
However, cholera remains an issue for much of the developing world
Cholera lives in the intestine, not inside its cells, and its toxin is the problem Bacterium secrete Cholera Toxin CT binds to and is endocytosed into host intestinal epithelial cells
CT causes adenylate cyclase to continually produce the signaling molecule cAMP
high cAMP levels repeatedly activate a pump in the plasma membrane This causes…
Cells pump out chloride and sodium ions, water and electrolytes This causes diarrhea, loss of electrolytes, and dehydration
75% of those infected do not develop any symptoms
Of the other 25%... – 20% get life-threatening symptoms
Cholera is easily treated in many parts of the world
– <1% death rate with proper treatment Rehydration Is the key!
Cholera antibiotics and vaccines are not commonly recommended resistance low efficacy
The problem is getting care to underdeveloped nations with limited resources
Prevention is easy in the developed world
Prevention is more difficult in parts of the developing world
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Image Sources http://affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/2010/08/sickness-makes-you-stupid.html http://blogs.bet.com/news/newsyoushouldknow/tag/cholera/ http://hubpages.com/hub/Prevention-and-Treatment-for-Cholera http://www.icm.tn.gov.in/idsp3.html http://www.africaneeds.org/diseases.html http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/aug/24/zimbabwe-new-cholera-outbreak http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/potm/2005_9/Page2.htm http://stylish-moms.com/?cat=142 http://iuhuru.com/2010/11/cholera-kills-800-haiti/ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/africa/jan-june09/zimbabwe_01-14.html http://centre.icddrb.org/news/index.jsp?idDetails=127&typeOfNews=News%20and%20Events http://www.vabiotechvn.com/english/?act=sanphamin&code=detail&idcat=4&id=17 http://www.cambridgenetwork.co.uk/object/news/52115/img/cholera%20hospital.jpg http://www.ferret.com.au/c/CST-Wastewater-Solutions/CST-Wastewater-Solutions-inlet-screen- and-grit-removal-package-plant-deployed-at-Matamata-Piako-District-Council-n831901 http://www.ferret.com.au/c/CST-Wastewater-Solutions/CST-Wastewater-Solutions-inlet-screen- and-grit-removal-package-plant-deployed-at-Matamata-Piako-District-Council-n831901 http://www.mediadump.com/hosted-id62-ten-filthiest-cities-in-the-world.html
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