VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang SHENIE: Simulation of High Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth M.A. Huang a, Y.L. Hong b, C.H. Iong bc, G.L. Lin b (a)
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Presentation on theme: "VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang SHENIE: Simulation of High Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth M.A. Huang a, Y.L. Hong b, C.H. Iong bc, G.L. Lin b (a)"— Presentation transcript:
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang SHENIE: Simulation of High Energy Neutrino Interacting with the Earth M.A. Huang a, Y.L. Hong b, C.H. Iong bc, G.L. Lin b (a) General Education Center, National United University, 1, Lien-da, Kung-ching Li, Miao-Li, 36003, TAIWAN (b) Institute of Physics, National Chiao-Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Rd., Hsin-chu, 300, TAIWAN (c) Current Address: Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei, 105, TAIWAN Presenter: M.A. Huang (email@example.com),firstname.lastname@example.org
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang What is SHENIE SHENIE means goddess in Mandarin!
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang UHE- fluxes So many UHE- fluxes, how to detect them? Traditional detector technology NuTel & CRTNT New techniques Radio Sound wave Need MC simulation for neutrino interacting with the Earth!
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Target: Mauna Loa, Hawaii Big Island, USA http://hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw/nutel/ P. Yeh, et al., Modern Physics Lett. A.19, 1117-1124, (2004). Mauna Loa View from Hualalai See NuTel talk by Bob Y. Hsiung
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Target: Mt. Wheeler, Nevada, USA. (prototype in construction) Z. Cao, M.A. Huang, P. Sokolsky, Y. Hu, J. Phys. G, 31, 571-582, (2005) Highlight of the year 2005 by J PG See CRTNT talk by Zhen Cao
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Radio array in salt dome Radio signal from EAS Large Cherenkov angle! Underground salt dome. Higher density than water/ice Good transparency to radio signal Free of artificial noise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Depth (km) Halite (rock salt) L ( 500 m w.e. Depth to >10km Diameter: 3-8 km V eff ~ 100-200 km 3 w.e. No known background >2 steradians possible Antenna array Figure comes from Peter Gorham, talk in SLAC SalSA workshop, 2005.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Previous version of SHENIE Monte-Carlo simulation for all processes except energy loss, which use deterministic method. where decay length = E. Publications based on this version: M.A. Huang, J.J. Tseng, and G.L. Lin (7/31- 8/7, 2003) Proc. of the 28th ICRC, Tsukuba, Japan, p.1427, (2003) M.A. Huang, Proc. of the 21th International Conference on Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ν-2004) at Paris, French, Nucl. Phys. B (Proc. Suppl.), 143, 546, (2005); astro-ph/0412642 P. Yeh, et al., Proc. of CosPA 2003, Modern Physics Lett. A.19, 1117-1124, (2004) Z. Cao, M.A. Huang, P. Sokolsky, Y. Hu, J. Phys. G, 31, 571-582, (2005)
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Current SHENIE structure CC/NC leptons hadrons e New event N Y Propagation thru. Earth Tauola Enter DSR EE e h N Y Enter DSR Y shower E sh N Exit DSR Y N CC : decay dE/dx E Direction, position EE
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Coordinate system Global : Isotropic distribution of & path length L and total depth Local : User supplied topological map Altitude (East, North) X: geometric East Y: geometric North Z: Vertical (geodetic) outward L RR L=2R sin
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Earth Model Spherical Earth, R = 6371.2 Km Density/composition profile Material around detector can be selected from 4 materials.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang DSR DSR: Detector Sensitive Region For SalSA simulation: Sphere of 5 km radius, under 1km of rock. For ES telescope: DSR set on top of Earth and local topological map must be supplied. Salt dome 1 km 5 km Std. rock
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang -N interaction CC/NC total cross- section determine interaction probability. W–resonance can be added by users Non-Standard model cross-section can be implemented as external data file G.L. Lin, M.A. Huang, C.H. Iong, work in progress
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Materials 4 materials: std. rock, water (ice), salt, iron Input particles: e/ e, / , / Energy loss of and in 4 materials Ionization ( ). Pair Production, Photo- Nuclear, Bressmstrlung Soft energy loss cut at 0.01 (can be changed) Tau loss by ~ 0.16% at E > 2.5 10 17 eV.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang decay decay simulated by Randomly choose one event from a data bank of pre-simulated events current version Link to TAUOLA in near future TAUOLA simulation Fully polarized Tauola have 22 decay modes, while PDB have 37 modes TAUOLA gives 4 momentum in CM of all decay particles Define E’ cm = P ║ + M Boost to lab by = E -lab / M Secondary particle energy in lab frame E’ lab = E’ cm
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Shower energy If decay inside Earth, E -lab is calculated and are re- propagated thru the rest of journey. If decay in atmosphere, shower energy E sh is sum over E lab of hadrons or electron / gamma. The mean energy per particles is calculated by E sh /M, where M is number of secondary particles which generate shower. Esh-CM Mean energy ~ 0.5
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Consistence check Use several methods to calculate tau flux passing through 100km of standard rock for two different source spectrum (AGN and GZK). MC: Use SHENIE, this work M.A. Huang, et al., paper in preparation. Semi-MC: MC in all processes except dE/dX M.A. Huang, Proc. of ν-2004 at Paris, Nucl. Phys. B, 143, 546, (2005) Analytical calculation: Solve and transport eq. J.J. Tseng et al., Phys. Rev. D 68, 063003, (2003). Source spectrum: AGN: A. Neronov, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 051101 (2002) GZK: R. Engel, D. Seckel and T. Stanev, Phys. Rev. D 64, 093010 (2001). Typical Earth skimming event, =90.5 , cord length ~100 km.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang AGN fluxes MC method produce results similar to analytical method. Conditions used in MC: 10 5 GeV < E < 10 10 GeV N =3 10 7 ~1.10 10 20 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 N =2979 (at E > 10 5 GeV) Mean conversion efficiency 9.93 10 -5 Total fluxes 2.7 10 -17 (cm 2 sr s) -1 ; Equivalent to 8.5 events/(km 2 sr yr) Should multiply trigger efficiency and acceptance to get event rate. Both energy-dependent energy peak at around 5~63 PeV, shower energy will peak around 10 PeV.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang GZK fluxes For GZK neutrinos, Slightly move to lower energy due to large energy loss. MC simulation conditions: 10 5 GeV < E < 10 12 GeV N =508294 ~1.52 10 22 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 N =5969 (at E > 10 5 GeV) Mean conversion efficiency 1.17 10 -2 Total fluxes 3.9 10 -19 (cm 2 sr s) -1 ; Equivalent to 0.12 events/(km 2 sr yr) energy peak at around 0.04 PeV ~1.6 EeV, Shower energy will peak around 0.1 EeV.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Underground salt dome detector Strawman array: 12 x 12 strings, 12 nodes per string (8 shown), 225 m spacing. Total volume (2.475km) 3 = 15.16 km 3 = 32.83 km 3 of w.e. Figure and specification come from Peter Gorham, talk in SLAC SalSA workshop, Mar. 2005.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Results -1 cos vs. shower energy: all events
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang SalSA tau events Showers come from several processes: decay, energy loss, CC and reverse CC. For each event, the maximum energy of sub-showers were used to identify this event.
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang FWHM of cos distribution: -0.05 < cos < 1, i.e. 0< < 93 FWHM of Esh: 10 16.5 eV < E sh < 10 18 eV. (Eth=10 15 eV)
VHENTW, 4/25/206M.A. Huang Conclusion SHENIE simulation code is “almost” finish! Still need some cosmetic works on user friendly I/O. Especially, need to work on output to ntuple. No manual or any documentation yet! For Earth skimming events: AGN tau flux ~ 8.5 events/(km 2 sr yr), need detector ~ 1 km 2 sr Shower spectrum peak around 10 16 eV. GZK tau flux ~ 0.12 events/(km 2 sr yr), need detector ~ 100 km 2 sr Shower spectrum peak around 10 17 eV. For underground detector such as SalSA: Shower spectrum peak around 10 17 eV. -0.1 < cos <1. In a radius of 5km salt dome, tau event rate could reach ~ 2.5 events/year Highly depend on detector simulation, which is highly simplified in this study.