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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 1 Algebraic Specification and Larch Formal Specifications of Complex Systems 236368 Shmuel Katz The Technion

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 2 The Basic Idea Describe a data structure and system through its operations and their effect on each other Operations are functions Axioms describe interactions of functions Extends logic with new terminology

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 3 A Stack signature push: ST x E --> ST pop: ST --> ST top: ST --> E new: --> ST axioms for s ST and i E pop( push( s, i )) = s top( push( s, i )) = i [ pop( new ) = undefined ] [ top( new ) = undefined ]

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 4 What have We Defined? Sequences of operations define an algebra of words over operators and variables Axioms define equivalence classes over the words: new = pop( push( new, 5 ) ) push( new, 6 ) = pop( push ( push( new, 6 ), 5 )) Claim: these axioms and signatures define ST, assuming E is already defined.

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 5 A Library Can say everything we need.... checkout: LIB x COPY x USERS --> LIB return: LIB x COPY x USERS --> LIB for a, b, c : COPY, u,v,w: USERS, L: LIB if a=b and u = v then return( checkout ( L, b, v ), a, u ) = L if a b then return( checkout ( L, b, v), a, u ) = checkout (return( L, a, u ), b, v ) what if a=b and u v ? or there is no checkout?

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 6 Larch Larch Shared Language with axioms and functions-- new terminology Larch Interface Languages: Input/Output specs. for program units Uses shared language terminology Specific for C, or C++, or Modula3,... LOTOS uses algebraic specification (Act II) and can be viewed as an interface language too LP: the Larch Prover

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 7 Components of the Shared Language stack : trait introduces push: ST x E --> ST pop: ST --> ST top: ST --> E new: --> ST empty: ST --> Bool asserts forall s ST, i E pop( push( s, i )) = s top( push( s, i )) = i empty( new) = true empty( push( s, v )) = false

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 8 A Table Tablespec: trait introduces new: --> Table add: Table, Ind, Val --> Table eval: Table, Ind --> Val _ _ : Ind, Table --> Bool isEmpty: Table --> Bool size: Table --> Integer

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 9 Tablespec (cont.) asserts forall i, j : Ind, v: Val, t: Table ~ ( i new ) i add( t, j, v ) = ( ( i = j ) ( i t ) ) eval( add( t, i, v ), j ) = if i = j then v else eval( t, j ) size ( new ) = 0 size( add( t, i, v )) = if i t then size (t) else size( t ) + 1 isEmpty( t ) = (size( t ) = 0 )

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 10 Notes No error values or undefined: errors are in the Interface Languages trait = characteristic, attribute, property,... Inside a trait a new sort (type) may be defined. How do we know if there are enough axioms?

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 11 Traits and Theories Theory defined by a trait: set of formulas (words) without free variables in typed first-order logic with equality..... the theory has: all axioms and rules of first-order logic all of the assertions in the trait everything that follows from the above Note: nothing else!

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 12 Initial and Final Algebras How should we relate to terms not connected by the axioms? Initial algebra: they must be different. Identify only what must be identified. Final algebra: they are the same. Identify whatever doesn’t violate the theory add( add (t, i, v ), j, v) ? add( add ( t, j, v ), i, v)

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 13 Extra parts of the Shared Language Making Stronger Theories: generated by partitioned by Combining Theories: includes renaming assumes Checking Consistency: implies converts exempting

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 14 S generated by s, t, u “All values of a sort S can be generated by operators s, t, and u” Every word of the algebra with no variables (representing a value of the sort) is equivalent to one that only has some of the operators in the list ST generated by new, push push(pop(push(pop(push(new, 5)),7)),9) = push(new, 9)

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 15 Kinds of Operators For a trait that defines a sort, have Constructors: change the sort Generators are some of these Extensions are the rest new, push, pop Observers: examine the sort top, isEmpty Often need axioms that apply each observer or extension to each generator

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 16 An Induction Rule To prove a property of a sort with “generated by”, use induction only on the words using operators in the list Example: in Tablespec include Table generated by new, add Now it is easy to prove t: Table, i: Ind. ( (i t ) ( size( t ) > 0 )

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 17 S partitioned by s, t, u “All distinct values of S can be differentiated by operators s, t, or u” If two words (values) are not equivalent, that can be seen by using the operators on those words. If we cannot distinguish them, they must be equivalent.

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 18 Examples of partition Sets are partitioned by the usual membership operation : if the elements are the same, so are the sets. Include in Tablespec: Table partitioned by , eval A final algebra approach...now we can prove the order of adding the same element in two places doesn’t matter.

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 19 Renaming Can rename sorts and/or operators from any included trait trait ( new1 for old1, new2 for old2,...) Sparse : trait includes Tablespec ( Arr for Table, Nat for Ind, _[_] for eval, update for add ) Another way: use parameters in the original trait

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 20 Checks and Implications Basic requirement of a trait: internal consistency Claim: cannot ever prove true = false Any trait submitted to LP is checked for such a proof-- but might not catch the problem. Extra checks: implies P “ P can be proven from the rest of the trait ” implies forall t: Table, i: Ind ( i t ) ~ isEmpty ( t )

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 21 The Larch handbook A library of useful Larch traits Common data structures: stack, queue, binary tree, set, bag, array,... Common properties: equivalence, total ordering,... Reusable components: calendar, symbol table

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 22 Interface Specifications traits provide well-defined terminology to be used in interface specifications Some operators of a trait may not appear in an interface specification for a specific system. Operators of a trait are implemented only if there is a module with such a requirement. A separate language for each Prog. Lang.

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 23 What’s in an Interface? LOTOS processes are an interface language: write push(s,i) in a process Often, input/output spec. for each module of the proposed system (Hoare logic) Inherits all keywords of the programming language, with their semantics var function t^ Uses terms from traits of LSL

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Katz2004 236386--Formal Specifications Larch 24 Summary on algebraic specification Considered ‘fully abstract’ (compared to Z--since state is implicit)Considered ‘fully abstract’ (compared to Z--since state is implicit) Fits well with proof obligations, extends terminology precisely, treats pure functions rather than control or overlapFits well with proof obligations, extends terminology precisely, treats pure functions rather than control or overlap Many versions--in LOTOS, Act II is used instead of LarchMany versions--in LOTOS, Act II is used instead of Larch Uses libraries, to ‘shield’ usersUses libraries, to ‘shield’ users

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