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COGNITION AND LANGUAGE Pertemuan 6 Matakuliah: O0072 / Pengantar Psikologi Tahun: 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "COGNITION AND LANGUAGE Pertemuan 6 Matakuliah: O0072 / Pengantar Psikologi Tahun: 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 COGNITION AND LANGUAGE Pertemuan 6 Matakuliah: O0072 / Pengantar Psikologi Tahun: 2008


3 BINA NUSANTARA3 COGNITION : DEFINITION (Latin: cognoscere, "to know")Latin The human-like processing of information, applying knowledge and changing preferencesinformation The intellectual processes through which information is obtained, transformed, stored, retrieved and otherwise used. Cognition or cognitive processes can be natural and artificial, conscious and not conscious

4 BINA NUSANTARA4 3 Primary Facets from Cognition Definition 1.Cognition processes Information In form of concepts or categories 2.Cognition is active Is actively changed, kept, used in the process of cognition In cognition, information is : Obtained through senses Transformed through the interpretive processes of perception & thinking Stored and retrieved through the processes of memory Used in problem solving and language 3.Cognition is useful We think because there is something we do not understand We use language because we need communicate something to others We create because we need something that doesn’t exist Use cognition to survive physically and to live in social world

5 BINA NUSANTARA5 COGNITION : CONCEPTS (1) Concepts are the basic units of thinking Concepts are general categories of things, events and qualities that are linked by a common feature or features, in spite of their differences

6 BINA NUSANTARA6 COGNITION : CONCEPTS (2) concepts categorization Simple and Complex Concepts –Conjunctive concepts : a simultaneous presence of two or more common characteristic –Disjunctive concepts : the presence of one of two common characteristics or both

7 BINA NUSANTARA7 COGNITION : CONCEPTS (3) Learning about concepts Natural Concepts : –Natural concepts are basic A basic concepts has a medium degree of inclusiveness (the number of members included in a concept) 3 level of inclusiveness : 1.Superordinate concepts are very inclusive 2.Basic concepts are the medium degree of inclusiveness 3.Subordinate concepts are the least inclusive level of concepts Several characteristic of basic concepts that “fit” the human intellect : –Share many attributes –Share similar shapes –Share motor movement –Easily named –Natural Concepts are good prototypes Good examples or prototypes

8 BINA NUSANTARA8 THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING Problem solving : the cognition process through which information is used to reach a goal that is blocked by some obstacle

9 BINA NUSANTARA9 1.Formulating The problem We have to know what the problem is 2.Understanding and Organizing the elements of the problem Inventory all the elements of the problems : the resources and the information Mental set : A habitual way of approaching or perceiving a problem  can interfere in finding the solution 3.Generating and Evaluating Alternative Solutions Trial and error the random application of one possible solution after another (-) time consuming & doesn’t guarantee that the solution will be discovered Algorithm Systematic patterns of reasoning that guarantee finding a correct solution to a problem Heuristic Reasoning Efficient problem solving based on strategies that increase the probabilities of finding a correct solution (-) don’t evaluate every possible solution, don’t guarantee to find the correct one, lead to poor solution Representativeness Heuristic : the strategy of making judgments about the unknown on the assumption that it is similar to what we know

10 BINA NUSANTARA10 Emotional Factors in Decision Making –Intuition –The perception of the risk Creative problem solving : the ability to make human products and ideas that are both novel and valued by others –Convergent thinking Thinking that is logical and conventional and that focuses on problem –Divergent thinking Thinking that is loosely organized, only partially directed and unconventional Creative process 1.Preparation : formulate problems, recall relevant facts, think abt possible solution 2.Incubation : a period of rest 3.Illumination : a sudden insight pertaining to the solution 4.Verification : the necessary but sometimes anticlimatic step of testing the solution


12 BINA NUSANTARA12 Language : definition A language is a system of arbitrary symbols and the rules used to manipulate them.system Language can also refer to the use of such systems as a general phenomenon. Though commonly used as a means of communication among people, human language is only one instance of this phenomenon.phenomenon Language is a symbolic code used in communication

13 BINA NUSANTARA13 LANGUAGE : SEMANTICS to aspects of meaning, as expressed in language or other systems of signs.meaninglanguagesigns The meaning in symbols, such as language Noam Chomsky (1975) -Surface Structure : the superficial spoken or written structure of a statement -Deep Structure : the underlying structure of a statement that holds its meaning

14 BINA NUSANTARA14 LANGUAGE : ELEMENTS & RULES Generative : the ability to create an infinite set of utterances using a finite set of elements and rules –Phonemes : the smallest units of sound in a language –Morphemes : the smallest units of meaning in a language –Syntax : the grammatical rules of a language * Utterances : ucapan, ungkapan, sounds

15 BINA NUSANTARA15 LANGUAGE : WHORFIAN HYPOTHESIS In linguistics, the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it.linguisticsgrammaticalcategories language the hypothesis argues that the nature of a particular language influences the habitual thought of its speakers. Different patterns of language yield different patterns of thought. This idea challenges the possibility of representing the world perfectly with language, because it acknowledges that the mechanisms of any language condition the thoughts of its community of speakers. The hypothesis emerged in many formulations, some weak and some strong.


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