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History of the Earth Chapter 1: Formation of the Earth From the Big Bang to Early Planets.

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Presentation on theme: "History of the Earth Chapter 1: Formation of the Earth From the Big Bang to Early Planets."— Presentation transcript:

1 History of the Earth Chapter 1: Formation of the Earth From the Big Bang to Early Planets

2 Origins of… The Universe (13.7 Gyr) The Elements (13.7 - 4.6 Gyr) The Solar System & the Earth (4.6 Gyr) The Moon (4.5-4.6 Gyr)

3 Hubble Deep Field

4 Origin of the Universe (13.7 Gyr) The Big Bang

5 WMAP Wilkinson Microwave Anisotrophy Probe Microwave light emitted 380,000 yrs after the Big Bang

6 History of the Universe

7 Stars Begin to Form about 300,000 years after the Big Bang At that time Universe is: 75% Hydrogen 25% Helium What about the rest of the elements?

8 Nebula


10 How a Star Works Radiation Pressure Gravity

11 Nucleosynthesis

12 Stellar Death: Collapse Radiation Pressure Gravity

13 Supernova: Crab Nebula

14 Supernova Remnants

15 Eagle Nebula

16 Origin of the Elements Hydrogen & Helium: Big Bang Helium to Iron: Stellar Fusion  Multiples of 4 most common: Helium Carbon, Oxygen, Neon, Magnesium, Silicon, Sulfur, Iron Iron to Uranium: Supernova

17 Origin of the Solar System: The Data

18 1. 99% of the mass of the solar system is in the sun

19 2. We know the composition of the sun

20 3. Planets orbit the sun in the plane of the sun’s equator

21 4. Planets come in two groups: Terrestrial Planets MercuryVenusEarth Mars - Small, Dense and made of Rock and Iron

22 4. Planets come in two groups: Jovian Planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune - Large, Low Density, and Made of Gas and Ice

23 Asteroids Mathilde & Eros (NEAR) Ida & Dactyl

24 Kuiper Belt & Pluto

25 5. Meteorites

26 Chondrites Carbonaceous Ordinary

27 Chondrules under a scope X-Ray Image

28 Abundance of Elements in Carbonaceous Chondrites

29 Achondrite - Stony Meterorite A stone from the Stannern eucrite shower that fell over Moravia, Czech Republic in 1808.

30 Iron Meteorite

31 Stony-Iron: Palasite Olivine Iron

32 6. Properties of the Earth

33 Origin of the Solar System: Interpretation Solar Nebula Hypothesis

34 1. Start With a Nebula Something (Supernova?) Triggers Nebula to Collapse


36 2. Nebula Collapses to form Protostar (Early Sun)




40 Protostar Formation

41 3. Residual Material Begins to Cool and Accrete

42 3a. “Gas” Segregated by Melting Temperature and Condenses

43 3b. Accretion: Dust Particles Accrete into Planetesimals

44 3b. Planetesimals Accrete into Planets

45 DaDa! - A Solar System

46 Dust Disks Around Young Stars


48 Extrasolar Planets

49 First Extra- Solar Planet Photographed (2005)

50 4. Terrestrial Planets Heat up and Differentiate: Iron Catastrophe Heat Comes From: 1.Kinetic Energy of Accretion 2.Gravitational Energy 3.Radioactive Decay 4.Differentiation

51 Earth’s Interior

52 Meteorite Sources

53 Meteorites & Solar System Age Formation: 4.56 billion years Meteorites all with 20 myrs (earliest within few Myrs of supernova) Supernova to sun and planetesimals - few million years! Layered earth about 96±12 Myrs after meteorites Nebula to layered earth & moon - about 100 Myrs

54 Earth in the Early Hadean? 2004 - Fred Sulahria

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