What is a System? Set of inter-related components with a clearly defined boundary Working together to achieve objectives
Simple Example Heating System Objective: Control the temperature inside a building Components: Furnace Thermostat Building
General Components Every system has some form of Input, and Output Processing is often required to transform the input to output Systems have some point of Control Systems often provide Feedback
Simple Example Heating System Input: Fuel Source, Desired Temperature, Actual Temperature Processing: If Actual Temp. < Desired then burn fuel to produce heat Output: Heat or no heat (depending on Input)
Simple Example Q: In a heating system, what could trigger the furnace to turn on? Q: In a heating system, what could trigger the furnace to turn off?
Feedback Feedback is data about the performance of a system. Example: Data about sales performance is feedback to a sales manager In a heating system, feedback would be the change +/- of the actual temperature.
Control Control involves monitoring and evaluating the feedback to determine whether the system is achieving its goals. Heating System Example: Goal: keep the building at 65 degrees Feedback: Temp falls to 62. Control: Turn on or turn up the furnace.
Control & Feedback A thermostat is a control unit of a heating system. Makes control decisions based on feedback. Good systems have self-monitoring control built into them (Cybernetic). Imagine trying to regulate the temperature in a room without a thermostat.
Important Terminology Cybernetic System Sub-system Open System Adaptive System System Parameter System Variable
Business Systems An Information System helps process Input into Output but it is also the backbone for directing feedback to Management (Control)
Information System Components These are the 5 components of an IS These are IS Activities In some sense providing Feedback is the primary objective of all these components and activities
Data vs. Information Data raw facts no context just numbers and text Information data with context processed data value-added to data summarized organized analyzed
Data vs. Information Data: 51006 Information: 5/10/06 The date of you final exam. $51,006 The average starting salary of an accounting major. 51006 Zip code of Battle Creek Indiana.
Data vs. Information Data 6.34 6.45 6.39 6.62 6.57 6.64 6.71 6.82 7.12 7.06 Information
Lufthansa Case pp 23 Questions: What type of Information System is described? (TSP, PCS, ECS, MIS, DSS, EIS?) What are the components: People, Hardware, Software, Networks, Data?
Luftansa Case Q: Are Lufthansa’s challenges similar to those being experienced by other businesses? Provide a mobile workforce Distribute training activities during non- productive periods Redefine processes to take advantage of new mobile technologies
Luftansa Case Q: Lufthansa was taking a risk with their decision to deploy notebook computers to their pilots. What steps did they take to manage that risk? Ensured that technical specs for the equipment were acceptable to both pilots and the union. Increase user buy-in by providing alternatives to cumbersome tasks (such as carrying manuals and technical documents around) Standardization to reduce support and upgrade costs Structured the process in phases; obtain feedback before mass implementation