The Hierarchy of Data Bit (a binary digit): a circuit that is either on or off Byte: 8 bits Character: each byte represents a character; the basic building.
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Presentation on theme: "The Hierarchy of Data Bit (a binary digit): a circuit that is either on or off Byte: 8 bits Character: each byte represents a character; the basic building."— Presentation transcript:
2 The Hierarchy of DataBit (a binary digit): a circuit that is either on or offByte: 8 bitsCharacter: each byte represents a character; the basic building block of informationField: name, number, or characters that describe an aspect of a business object or activityRecord: a collection of related data fieldsFile: a collection of related recordsDatabase: a collection of integrated and related filesHierarchy of dataBits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases
3 Data Entities, Attributes, and Keys Entity: a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintainedAttribute: a characteristic of an entityData item: a value of an attributeKey: field(s) that identify a recordPrimary key: field(s) that uniquely identify a recordFigure 3.2: Keys and Attributes
4 The Traditional Approach Traditional approach: separate data files are created for each applicationResults in data redundancy (duplication)Data redundancy conflicts with data integrityDatabase approach: pool of related data is shared by multiple applicationsSignificant advantages over traditional approachThe database approach to data management provides significant advantages over the traditional file-based approach.Define general data management concepts and terms, highlighting the advantages of the database approach to data management.Describe the relational database model and outline its basic features.Figure 3.3: The Traditional Approach to Data Management
5 The Database ApproachFigure 3.4: The Database Approach to Data Management
8 Data Modeling and the Relational Database Model When building a database, consider:Content: What data should be collected, at what cost?Access: What data should be provided to which users, and when?Logical structure: How should data be arranged to make sense to a given user?Physical organization: Where should data be physically located?
9 Data Modeling Building a database requires two types of design Logical designShows an abstract model of how data should be structured and arranged to meet an organization’s information needsPhysical designFine-tunes the logical database design for performance and cost considerations
10 Data Modeling (continued) Data model: a diagram of data entities and their relationshipsEntity-relationship (ER) diagrams: data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relationships between dataFigure 3.5: An Entity-Relationship (ER) Diagram for a Customer Order Database
11 The Relational Database Model Relational model: all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables (relations), which are the logical equivalent of filesRelational model: all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables (relations), which are the logical equivalent of filesIn the relational model:Each row of a table represents a data entityColumns of the table represent attributesDomain: the allowable values for data attributesFigure 3.6: A Relational Database Model
12 Manipulating Data Figure 3.8: Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry Linking: relates or links two or more tables using common data attributes very useful when info is needed from multiple tablesFigure 3.8: Linking Data Tables to Answer an Inquiry
13 Database Management Systems (DBMS) Interface betweenDatabase and application programsDatabase and the user
14 Basic DBMS Functions: Providing user views Creating and modifying databasesStoring and retrieving dataManipulating dataGenerating reports
15 Providing a User View Schema: description of the entire database User view: user-accessible portion of the databaseSubschemaContains a description of a subset of the databaseIdentifies which users can view and modify the data items in the subsetIs used to create different user views
16 Providing a User View (continued) One of the first steps in installing and using a database involves telling the DBMS the logical and physical structure of the data and the relationships among the data in the database. This description is called a schema. If there is a need to create different user views, or portions of the database that particular users can access, subschemas will need to be developed. A subschema is a file that contains a description of a subset of the database and identifies which users can view and modify the data items in that subset.Figure 3.10: The Use of Schemas and Subschemas
17 Creating and Modifying the Database Data definition language (DDL)Collection of instructions/commands that define and describe data and data relationships in a databaseAllows database creator to describe the data and the data relationships that are to be contained in the schema and the subschemasData dictionary: a detailed description of all the data used in the databaseCreating and Modifying the DatabaseSchemas and subschemas are entered into the DBMS via a data definition language. A data definition language (DDL) is a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and data relationships in a specific database.
18 Creating and Modifying the Database (continued) Schemas and subschemas are entered into the DBMS via a data definition language. A data definition language (DDL) is a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and data relationships in a specific database.Figure 3.12: A Typical Data Dictionary Entry
19 Storing and Retrieving Data When an application requests data from the DBMS, the application follows a logical access pathWhen the DBMS goes to a storage device to retrieve the requested data, it follows a path to the physical location (physical access path) where the data is storedStoring and Retrieving DataA DBMS functions as an interface between an application program and the database. When an application program needs data, it requests that data through the DBMS. When an application program requests data from the DBMS, the application program follows a logical access path. Next, the DBMS, working in conjunction with various system software programs, accesses a storage device, such as disk or tape, where the data is stored. When the DBMS goes to this storage device to retrieve the data, it follows a path to the physical location (physical access path, or PAP) where the data is stored.
20 Storing and Retrieving Data (continued) Figure 3.13: Logical and Physical Access Paths
21 Manipulating Data and Generating Reports Query-By-Example (QBE): a visual approach to developing database queries or requestsData manipulation language (DML): commands that manipulate the data in a databaseStructured Query Language (SQL): ANSI standard query language for relational databasesDatabase programs can produce reports, documents, and other outputsManipulating Data and Generating ReportsQuery-By-Example (QBE) is a visual approach to developing database queries or requests. Another approach is the use of a programming language. The commands that are used to manipulate a database are part of the data manipulation language (DML). Structured Query Language (SQL) is a data manipulation language that has been adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as the standard query language for relational databases.
22 Manipulating Data and Generating Reports (continued) Figure 3.16: Database Output
23 Database Administration Database administrator (DBA): directs or performs all activities to maintain a database environmentDesigning, implementing, and maintaining the database system and the DBMSEstablishing policies and proceduresTraining employeesDatabase AdministrationA database administrator (DBA) is a highly skilled systems professional who directs or performs all activities to maintain a successful database environment. The DBA’s responsibilities include designing, implementing, and maintaining the database system and the DBMS; establishing policies and procedures pertaining to the management, security, maintenance, and use of the database management system; and training employees in database management and use.
24 Popular Database Management Systems Popular DBMSs for end users: Microsoft Access and Corel ParadoxThe complete database management software market includes databases by IBM, Oracle, and MicrosoftExamples of open-source database systems: PostgreSQL and MySQLMany traditional database programs are now available on open-source operating systemsPopular Database Management SystemsThe latest generation of database management systems makes it possible for end users to build their own database applications. End users are using these tools to address everyday problems, such as how to manage a mounting pile of information on employees, customers, inventory, or sales. These database management systems are an important personal productivity tool along with word processing, spreadsheet, and graphics software.A key to making DBMSs more usable for some databases is the incorporation of “wizards,” which walk you through how to build customized databases, modify ready-to-run applications, use existing record templates, and quickly locate the data you want. These applications also include powerful new features, such as help systems and Web-publishing capabilities. For example, users can create a complete inventory system and then instantly post it to the Web, where it does double duty as an electronic catalog.Some of the more popular DBMSs for end users include Microsoft’s Access and Corel’s Paradox. Popular options among the DBMSs used by professional programmers include products from IBM, Oracle, and Microsoft. A number of open-source database systems are also available, including PostgreSQL and MySQL.
25 Special-Purpose Database Systems Summation and Concordance (law firms)CaseMap (law firms)LiveNote (display and analyze transcript)Scottish Intelligence Database (SID)GlobalSpec ( engineer )Special-Purpose Database SystemsA number of specialized database packages are used for specific purposes or in specific industries. Examples of such systems include Summation and Concordance, used in law firms; the Scottish Intelligence Database (SID), used by the Scottish Drug Enforcement Agency; and GlobalSpec, used by engineers and product designers.
26 Selecting a Database Management System Important characteristics of databases to consider:Size of the databaseNumber of concurrent usersPerformanceAbility to be integrated with other systemsFeatures of the DBMSVendor considerationsCost of the system
27 Using Databases with Other Software Database management systems are often used with other software packages or the InternetA database management system can act as a front-end application or a back-end applicationFront-end application: interacts with usersBack-end application: interacts with applicationsThe number and types of database applications will continue to evolve and yield real business benefits.Identify and briefly discuss current database applications.Using Databases with Other SoftwareDatabase management systems are often used in conjunction with other software packages or the Internet. A database management system can act as a front-end application or a back-end application. A front-end application is one that directly interacts with people or users. A back-end application interacts with other programs or applications; it only indirectly interacts with people or users.
28 Database Applications: Linking the Company Database to the Internet Corporate databases can be accessed by customers, suppliers, and employees through:The InternetIntranetsExtranetsSemantic Web: Developing a seamless integration of traditional databases with the Internet
29 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining Data warehouse: collects business information from many sources in the enterpriseData mart: a subset of a data warehouseData mining: an information-analysis tool for discovering patterns and relationships in a data warehouse or a data mart
30 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining (continued) Figure 3.17: Elements of a Data Warehouse
31 Data Warehouses, Data Marts, and Data Mining (continued) Table 3.3: Common Data-Mining Applications
32 Business Intelligence Business intelligence (BI): gathering the right information in a timely manner and usable form and analyzing it to have a positive impact on businessKnowledge management: capturing a company’s collective expertise and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff
33 Distributed Databases Data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devicesCorporations get more flexibility in how databases are organized and usedReplicated databaseHolds a duplicate set of frequently used data
34 Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) Software that allows users to explore data from a number of different perspectivesTable 3.4: Comparison of OLAP and Data Mining
35 Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management Systems Object-oriented databaseStores both data and its processing instructionsMethod: a procedure or actionMessage: a request to execute or run a method
36 Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Database Management Systems (continued) Object-oriented database management system (OODBMS)Programs that manipulate an object-oriented database and provide a user interface and connections to other application programsObject-relational database management system (ORDBMS)A DBMS capable of manipulating audio, video, and graphical data
37 Visual, Audio, and Other Database Systems Visual database systemsAudio database systemsVirtual database systemsSpatial data technology