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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 11

2 Sexual life cycle Made up of meiosis and fertilization Diploid cells –Somatic cells of adults have 2 sets of chromosomes Haploid cells –Gametes have only 1 set of chromosomes Offspring inherit genetic material from 2 parents 2

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5 5 Features of Meiosis Meiosis includes two rounds of division –Meiosis I and meiosis II –Each has prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase stages Synapsis –During early prophase I –Homologous chromosomes become closely associated –Includes formation of synaptonemal complexes Formation also called tetrad or bivalents

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7 7 Crossing over Genetic recombination between nonsister chromatids Allows the homologues to exchange chromosomal material Alleles of genes that were formerly on separate homologues can now be found on the same homologue Chiasmata – site of crossing over –Contact maintained until anaphase I

8 During metaphase I, the paired homologues move to the metaphase plate and become oriented with homologues of each pair attached to opposite poles of the spindle –In mitosis, homologues behave independently During anaphase I, homologues are pulled to opposite poles for each pair of chromosomes –In mitosis, sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles 8

9 First meiotic division is termed the “reduction division” –Results in daughter cells that contain one homologue from each chromosome pair No DNA replication between meiotic divisions Second meiotic division does not further reduce the number of chromosomes –Separates the sister chromatids for each homologue 9

10 Prophase I Chromosomes coil tighter and become visible, nuclear envelope disappears, spindle forms Each chromosome composed of 2 sister chromatids Synapsis –Homologues become closely associated –Crossing over occurs between nonsister chromatids –Remain attached at chiasmata Chiasmata move to the end of the chromosome arm before metaphase I 10

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12 12 Anaphase I Microtubules of the spindle shorten –Chiasmata break Homologues are separated from each other and move to opposite poles –Sister chromatids remain attached to each other at their centromeres Each pole has a complete haploid set of chromosomes consisting of one member of each homologous pair Independent assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes

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14 14 Telophase I Nuclear envelope re-forms around each daughter nucleus Sister chromatids are no longer identical because of crossing over (prophase I) Cytokinesis may or may not occur after telophase I Meiosis II occurs after an interval of variable length

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16 16 Meiosis II Resembles a mitotic division Prophase II: nuclear envelopes dissolve and new spindle apparatus forms Metaphase II: chromosomes align on metaphase plate Anaphase II: sister chromatids are separated from each other Telophase II: nuclear envelope re-forms around 4 sets of daughter chromosomes; cytokinesis follows

17 Final result Four cells containing haploid sets of chromosomes In animals, develop directly into gametes In plants, fungi, and many protists, divide mitotically –Produce greater number of gametes –Adults with varying numbers of gametes 17

18 Errors Nondisjunction – failure of chromosomes to move to opposite poles during either meiotic division Aneuploid gametes – gametes with missing or extra chromosomes Most common cause of spontaneous abortion in humans 18

19 19 Meiosis vs. Mitosis Meiosis is characterized by 4 features: 1.Synapsis and crossing over 2.Sister chromatids remain joined at their centromeres throughout meiosis I 3.Kinetochores of sister chromatids attach to the same pole in meiosis I 4.DNA replication is suppressed between meiosis I and meiosis II

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