REINFORCEMENT THEORY Behavior is a function of consequences Behavior that is rewarded persists To increase behavior –Positive reinforcement –negative reinforcement
REINFORCEMENT THEORY To reduce behavior –Extinction –Punishment Immediacy is crucial Implications?
EXPECTANCY THEORY People are motivated to do that which they believe is possible and valuable Expectancy: Belief that you can perform Instrumentality: Belief that performance will lead to an outcome Valence: Value of the outcome
EXPECTANCY THEORY According to expectancy theory, what must managers do to motivate their employees? – – – – –
GOAL SETTING THEORY People naturally set goals Benefits of Goals: –Increase effort –Direct effort –Increase persistence Most effective goals are:
Motivation Theories Need (Maslow & ERG) Equity Reinforcement Expectancy Theory Goal-Setting Theory
Effective Rewards & Incentive Systems: Recognize Individual Differences Effective Goal Setting –Clearly defined measurable targets and expectations –Realistic stretch (under employees’ control) –Collaboratively set Remove obstacles/barriers Link meaningful/valued rewards to desired behavior –Those that fulfill strategic objectives; avoid undesirables Reward ASAP after behavior Check the system for equity, fairness, consistency Remember money is only the beginning
HERZBERG Movement vs. Motivation KITA What’s wrong with KITA? With movement?
TYPES OF MOTIVATION Extrinsic Motivation: –"What gets rewarded gets done" –Based on extrinsic/tangible rewards Intrinsic Motivation: –"What is rewarding gets done" –Based on intrinsic/intangible rewards
Job design Job Specialization: Scientific management –Jobs are simple, easy to learn, economical –Drawbacks?
Job Characteristics Model Core Job Dimensions Personal & Work Outcomes Critical Psychological States Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness of Work Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Knowledge of Actual Results of Work Activities High Internal Work Motivation High-quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism & Turnover
IMPLEMENTING CONCEPTS CORE JOB DIMENSIONS CRITICAL PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES PERSONAL WORK OUTCOMES Combining Tasks Forming Natural Work Units Establishing Client Relationships Vertical Loading Opening Feedback Channels Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Autonomy Feedback Experienced Meaningfulness Experienced Responsibility for Outcomes of Work Knowledge of the Actual Results of Work activities High Internal Work Motivation High Quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with the Work Low Absenteeism and turnover - STRENGTH OF EMPLOYEE’S GROWTH NEEDS - KNOWLEDGE & SKILLS - CONTEXT SATISFACTION
Intrinsic Motivation: From Theory to Application