Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods 6th Edition
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1 Gary D. Borich Effective Teaching Methods 6th Edition Chapter 1The Effective Teacher
2 Chapter Overview What Is an Effective Teacher? Key Behaviors Contributing to Effective TeachingSome Helping Behaviors Related to Effective TeachingTeaching Effectively with Diverse Learners and ContentThe Complexity of TeachingProfessional Teaching StandardsYour Transition to the Real World of Teaching
3 What Is an Effective Teacher? The role model definition: Effective teaching originally focused primarily on a teacher’s goodness as a person, and only secondarily on his/her behavior in the classroom.The psychological characteristics definition: Another early definition focused on the psychological characteristics of a teacher (such as personality, attitude, achievement, and aptitude).In recent years validated assessments, such as the Praxis Professional Assessments for Beginning Teachers, have helped predict teacher’s classroom performance.
4 What Is an Effective Teacher? (Continued) In the 1970s and 1980s methods for studying interactions of teachers and students sought to discover links between teacher behavior and student performance.Modern definitions of effective teaching reference patterns of teacher-student interaction that influence the cognitive and affective performance of students.Classroom Interaction Analysis is a research methodology in which the verbal interaction patterns of teachers and students are systematically observed, recorded, and related to student performance.
5 Five Key Behaviors Contributing to Effective Teaching Lesson Clarity: logical step-by-step order; clear and audible delivery.Instructional Variety: variability in materials, questioning, feedback, and teaching strategies.Task Orientation: content orientation instead of process orientation.Student Engagement: limit distractions, keep students working on content.Opportunities for Success: a high percentage of time spent on tasks that provide moderate to high levels of success.
6 Five Helping Behaviors Related to Effective Teaching Use student ideas and contributions during the lesson.Structure the lesson with advance organizers as well as mental and activity strategies.Use both content (direct) and process (indirect) questions.Probe and elicit clarification, solicit additional information (check for understanding).Be involved in your teaching – show interest, using gestures, eye contact, etc. to communicate a nurturing relationship to the learner.
7 The Art of Questioning: Types of Content Questions Direct: The question requires no interpretation or alternative meanings.Lower-order: The question requires the recall only of readily available facts.Convergent: Different data sources lead to the same answer.Closed: The question has no possible alternative answers or interpretations.Fact: The question requires only the recall of pieces of well-accepted knowledge.
8 The Art of Questioning: Types of Process Questions Indirect: The question has various interpretations and alternative meanings.Higher-order: The question requires more complex mental processes than simple recall of facts.Divergent: Different data sources will lead to different correct answers.Open: A single correct answer is not expected or even possible.Concept: The question requires the processes of abstraction, generalization, and inference.
9 ConstructivismConstructivism is a philosophy of learning that explains how people come to understand or know. It assumes that learning is an active process in which learners internally construct knowledge from interactions with their physical and social environment.Three attributes of constructivism are:Cognitive conflict or confusion is the stimulus for learning.Knowledge evolves through negotiation, which makes collaborative groups important for testing and expanding understanding.Understanding comes from one’s interactions with the environment.
10 Teaching Effectively with Diverse Learners and Content The key behaviors of lesson clarity, instructional variety, and teacher’s task orientation remain effective.Teacher affect is particularly important in lower socio-economic status (SES) classrooms.The helping behaviors of using student contributions, structuring, and questioning may be applied differently when dealing with diverse learners.
11 Effective Teaching Behaviors May Differ Across Content Areas Different content areas seem to benefit from different strategies. For example, research shows that:For basic mathematics instruction a formal, direct approach seems to be most effective.For reading, an inquiry based approach seems to be more effective than a direct one.These approaches are not mutually exclusive, representing different degrees of emphasis, and not exclusive practice.
12 The Complexity of Teaching Effective teaching integrates key and helpful behaviors into meaningful patterns to create effective teaching practices.
13 Professional Teaching Standards The National Board for Professional teaching Standards (NBPTS) proposes five propositions essential to effective teaching.The Interstate New Teacher Assessment and Support Consortium (INTASC) standards are written as ten principles, explaining what a beginning teacher should know and be able to do.
14 Your Transition to the Real World of Teaching Fuller’s three stages of concerns that teachers pass through on the way to becoming a professional are:Concern for selfConcern for the teaching task.Concern for their impact on learners.