Chemical Reaction - when one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances Products - the substances that are formed from the reaction Reactants - the substances that produce the products, they are the starting materials Word equations - using words to represent the equation ex. Skeleton equations - uses chemical formulas to represent the equation ex. Chemical equation - a statement that uses chemical formulas to show the identities and relative amounts of the substances involved in a chemical reaction
Balancing Chemical Equations Coefficient - number written in front of a reactant or product, usually whole numbers, and represent how many moles of the substance there is Steps to balance an equation: 1 - write the skeleton equation for the reaction 2 - count the atoms of the elements in the reactants 3 - count the atoms of the elements in the products 4 - Change the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation 5 - write the coefficients in their lowest possible ratio 6 - check your work
GENERAL CHEMISTRY NAME__________________________ Hour _____ Chapter 8 Homework #2 For each of the following, a) write the formula of each substance and b) write a balanced equation c) indicate the type of reaction on ___ 1) Magnesium bromide + Sodium sulfate yields Magnesium sulfate + Sodium bromide. _____ 2) Barium chloride + Potassium sulfite yields Barium sulfite + Potassium chloride. _____ 3) Calcium carbonate + Hydrochloric acid yields Calcium chloride + Carbon dioxide + water. _____ 4) Magnesium + Oxygen gas yields Magnesium oxide. _____ 5) Phosphorus + Iodine yields Phosphorus triiodide. _____ 6) Calcium hydroxide + Ammonium sulfate yields Calcium sulfate + Ammonium hydroxide. _____ 7) Iron III chloride + Ammonium sulfide yields Iron III sulfide + Ammonium chloride. _____ 8) Silver nitrate + Zinc chloride yields Silver chloride + Zinc nitrate. _____ 9) Lead + Sulfuric acid yields Lead II sulfate + Hydrogen gas. _____ 10) Iron + Copper I nitrate yields Iron II nitrate + Copper. _____ 11) C opper + Silver nitrate yields Silver + Copper II nitrate. _____ 12) Antimony + Fluorine gas yields Antimony III fluoride. _____ 13) Barium acetate + Magnesium bisulfite yields Barium bisulfite + Magnesium acetate. _____ 14) Sodium bromide + Chlorine gas yields Sodium chloride + Bromine. _____ 15) Ferric sulfate + sodium carbonate yields Ferric carbonate + Sodium sulfate. _____ 16) Lithium sulfite + Acetic acid yields Lithium acetate + Sulfurous acid. _____ 17) Perchloric acid + Copper I carbonate yields Copper I perchlorate + Carbon dioxide + water. _____ 18) Silver sulfate + Aluminum chlorate yields Silver chlorate + Aluminum sulfate. _____ 19) Sodium hydroxide + Carbon dioxide yields Sodium bicarbonate. _____ 20) Lead IV chloride + Calcium oxide yields Lead IV oxide + Calcium chloride. _____
Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Solute - Solvent - Aqueous - When the solvent is Water Precipitate - a solid that is produced in a chemical reaction Ex. NaOH + CuCl 2 ------> NaCl + Cu(OH) 2 C omplete ionic equation - an ionic equation that shows all of the particles in a solution Spectator ions - ions that do not participate in a reaction, they are usually not shown in an equation net ionic equations - equations that include only the particles that participate in the reaction ex.