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2 - MINERALS Building Blocks of Rocks Matter & Atomic Structure Bonding Minerals –Physical properties of minerals –Major rock-forming mineral families –Silicates - rock-forming SUPER STARS
Structure of an Atom Protons +/1 Neutrons 0/1 Electrons -/0
Two-dimensional representation of a 12 C atom Fig. 3.1BFig. 3.1B
BONDING - 4 kinds IONIC - electrical charge COVALENT - sharing METALLIC - inner shell covalent bond INTERMOLECULAR - Van der Waal’s
IONIC BONDING - electrical
Covalent Bonding in Diamond
Covalent Bonds in Water
Carbon Atoms in Graphite
MINERALS - Rock Builders NATURALLY FORMED INORGANIC CRYSTALLINE & SOLID DIAGNOSTIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Galena (PbS) CRYSTALLINE SOLID
Atomic Structure of Galena Sulfur Lead DIAGNOSTIC CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
Ionic Radii & charge of some geologically important ions allows “ionic substitution” or SOLID SOLUTION
WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE WHAT MINERAL WILL FORM? WHAT ELEMENTS ARE AVAILABLE ABUNDANCE OF EACH ELEMENT SIZE & CHARGE OF EACH ELEMENT ENVIRONMENT - SPACE, PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE
Irregular Intergrowth of Quartz
Identify Minerals by Their Physical Properties Crystal Habit Cleavage & Fracture * Striations Hardness Specific Gravity Color Streak Luster Acid Test
Constancy of Interfacial and Angles in Quartz Crystal Form - Constancy of Interfacial Angles
Striations: Pyrite (Fool’s Gold) FeS)
Brian Skinner Examples MOH’S HARDNESS SCALE
The Different Colors of Corundum Ruby Sapphire
Streak - color of rock power
GALENA (Pb S) - Identified by: crystal habit luster specific gravity hardness
Average Composition of the Continental Crust Weight PercentVolume Percent Si O O
COMMON ROCK-FORMING MINERAL FAMILIES NATIVE ELEMENTS - GOLD, COPPER HALIDES - PRECIPITATES OXIDES - 1 METAL + OXYGEN SULFIDES - 1 METAL + SULFUR SULFATES - (SO 4 ) 2- CARBONATES - (CO 3 ) 2- SILICATES - SUPER STARS!!!
One view of the Silica Tetrahedron
More Views of the Silica Tetrahedron
Linking Silicate Tetrahedra
About Silicates There are 2 families of silicates: FERROMAGNESIAN SILICATES - Fe/Mg -> MAFIC MINERALS NONFERROMAGNESIAN or ALUMINO- SILICATES -> FELSIC MINERALS
Olivine: formed from single silica tetrahedra (Mg,Fe) 2 SiO 4
Cleavage in the Chain Silicates Pyroxene Amphibole
Framework (example: quartz)
SHEET SILICATES Clay: a sheet silicate
Polished Section ~1 cm
Thin section under ordinary light Magnetite Mica Quartz Feldspar
Thin section under polarized light
Chapter 3: Matter and Minerals (part II)
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE
Minerals A. Changing scales to looking at the elements of the earth and its crust (8 most common) B. Introduction to minerals that comprise rocks (11 most.
Six-sided, pyramidal Quartz Crystals.
Classification of Minerals Possibilities?. Chemical composition Gold, Silver, Sulfur Native elements Au, Ag, S Sulfides Pyrite, Galena FeS, PbS Hematite,
Minerals Chapter 2Earth Materials— Minerals and Rocks 9/13.
Matter and Minerals.
Minerals. What Is a Mineral? A mineral is a solid, naturally occurring substance that has a specific chemical composition and a highly ordered internal.
Minerals: Building blocks of rocks Definition of a mineral: Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical.
By definition a mineral is: Naturally occurring An inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular structure Definite chemical composition By definition a.
Minerals: Building blocks of rocks
Minerals Building Blocks of Rocks Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Matter and Minerals. Minerals: Building blocks of rocks By definition a mineral is Naturally occurring Inorganic solid Ordered internal molecular.
Minerals: The Building Blocks of Rocks
Edward J. Tarbuck & Frederick K. Lutgens
Atoms, Compounds, Minerals and Rocks. Atoms Atoms - the smallest unit of an element that retains the physical and chemical properties of that element.
Tim Horner CSUS Geology Department Atoms, Elements, and Minerals Physical Geology 13/e, Chapter 2.
© 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their.
MINERALS TYPES OF BONDING INTERMOLECULAR BONDING HYDROGEN BONDING Occurs primarily between water molecules due to polarity. VAN DER WAALS BONDING Occurs.
Lecture 3 Minerals What are minerals? Basic chemistry: a quick reminder Physical properties of minerals Rock-forming minerals.
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