Unit 3 - Macroeconomics. Standard - What is Macroeconomics? Macroeconomics is the study of large scale economies. Macro – examines entire economies.
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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3 - Macroeconomics. Standard - What is Macroeconomics? Macroeconomics is the study of large scale economies. Macro – examines entire economies."— Presentation transcript:
What is Macroeconomics? Macroeconomics is the study of large scale economies. Macro – examines entire economies Ex. Unemployment in the US Productivity in China Micro – examines a single household or business
How do economists measure an economy? There are several macroeconomic indicators. Most Common: GDP
Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total dollar value of all final goods and service produced within a country in one calendar year Must consider: 1. Final Output (not the intermediate phases…think tree – lumber – house) 2. Current Year (not used cars or second hand clothes) 3. Output Produced Within National Borders (not international factories)
How is GDP Calculated? Output-Expenditure Model GDP= C + I + G + (X-M)
C = Personal Consumption Expenditures Consumer purchases…anything new that you buy 2 Types: 1. Durable Goods – last longer than 1 year Examples: cars, houses, computers
C = Personal Consumption Expenditures 2. Nondurable Goods – last less than 1 year Examples: food, make-up, etc.
I = Gross Investment o Total investment in capital goods o Factories, office space, raw materials
G = Government Purchases o Includes federal, state, and local spending…highways, education, national defense, transfer payments o Transfer Payments: govt taxes “transferred” to others
(X – M) = Net Exports (Exports – Imports) May have a trade surplus or trade deficit Surplus (Exports > Imports) Deficit (Exports < Imports)
Limitations of GDP: 1. Accuracy and Timeliness of Data Gathering data is slow process 2. Nonmarket Activities Performing activities at no charge…mowing the lawn
Limitations Cont. 3. Underground Economy Illegal or unreported legal activity 4. “Goods” and “Bads” Things that are beneficial are sometimes not reported and things that are detrimental are reported
GDP Nominal GDP – current dollar amount of GDP Real GDP – dollar amount adjusted for inflation
The Business Cycle: the regular ups and downs in an economy Expansion: Period of economic growth GDP Peak: Highest Point in an economy Strong Economy Contraction: Period of economic slowdown GDP (or increasing at a slower rate) Trough: Lowest Point in an economy
Business Cycle Continued… Recession: a decline in the rate of national economic activity Usually measured by a decline in real GDP for at least 2 consecutive quarters (6 months) Depression: a severe, prolonged economic contraction
Is there anything we can do to maintain a stable economy?
How do we do it? 1. Monetary Policy (The Fed) 2. Fiscal Policy (Congress)
Money and the Money Supply Money: anything that is generally accepted as final payment for g/s Money Supply: Currency (coins and paper $) in the hands of the public plus checking-type accounts The supply of money in the economy is important for price stability and economic growth.
Key Points about the Money Supply 1. Too much money in the economy can cause inflation. Inflation: rise in the average price level of g/s Money doesn’t “go as far”…it isn’t worth as much
2. Too little money in the economy can lead to falling prices and falling production. Deflation: a decrease in the avg. price level of g/s
Money Supply Continued… The Federal Reserve controls the money supply through monetary policy. Monetary Policy works by increasing or decreasing the money supply.
The Federal Reserve System “The Fed” The bankers’ bank and the govt’s bank Created in 1914 after a series of bank failures. The Fed Board of Governors: 7 members appointed by the President, confirmed by the Senate President appoints chairperson to a 4 year term
The Fed – 12 Regional Banks Located in major cities around the country Each bank has president chosen by board of directors (local business/banking community)
Tools of Monetary Policy Stimulate Economy – Increase Money Supply Control Inflation – Decrease Money Supply
Tools of Monetary Policy (3) 1. Open Market Operations: when the Fed buys or sells U.S. govt. securities (bonds) Buy securities…more money in circulation (stimulate economy) Sell securities…less money in circulation (slow down economy)
Govt. Bonds/Securities Essentially…a loan to the US Govt.
Tools of Monetary Policy: 2. Changes in Discount Rate: The interest rate the Fed charges on loans to banks Lower rate…banks are encouraged to make more loans (money supply increases) Raise rate…banks are discouraged from making loans (money supply decreases)
Tools of Monetary Policy: 3. Changes in Reserve Requirement: The minimum percentage of deposits that banks must keep on reserve to back up checking-type accounts Lower reserve requirement…banks have more money to lend (increases money supply) Raise reserve requirement…banks have less to lend (decreases money supply)
Fiscal Policy Is what the government (Congress) can do to influence the economy 2 Types: 1. Contractionary (slow down) 2. Expansionary (stimulate) Limitations: Slow Political
Tools of Fiscal Policy 1. Tax: either increase (contractionary) or decrease (expansionary) Proportional: flat tax…burden on poor Progressive: income tax…burden on rich Regressive: sales tax…burden on poor
2. Spend: either increase (expansionary) or decrease (contractionary) Purchases –g/s purchased by the govt. Transfer Payments – money payment sent to individuals (welfare, Social Security) 3. Borrow
Multiplier Effect The idea that increased spending by consumers, businesses, or govt. becomes income for someone else. (then their spending becomes someone else’s income, etc.) “A chain reaction”
Supply Side Economics “Voodoo Economics” Tax cuts for big business http://www.killerclips.com/clip.php?id =110&qid=1287
National Debt – all the $ the federal government owes to bondholders Government Deficits – spending more than you take in during a fiscal year Also referred to as deficit spending
Other Economic Challenges 1. Unemployment (4 types) Seasonal, Frictional, Cyclical, Structural Unemployed: those who wish to work but cannot find jobs Issues: - Doesn’t include those who have given up looking for work (discouraged workers) - Part-time workers are counted as fully employed - Unemployed seeking PT counted same as those seeking FT
Unemployment Rate # of Unemployed # in Workforce X 100 =___%
Practice If there are 500 students at SCHS who are counted in the workforce and 100 are unemployed…what is the unemployment rate of the students at SCHS?
2. Inflation: an increase in the average price level of all products in an economy Occurs because aggregate demand increases faster than aggregate supply Also…too much money chasing too few goods Aggregate Demand: total demand for all final g/s at a range of price levels of an entire economy Aggregate Supply: total production of all final g/s at a range of price levels of an entire economy
How is Inflation Measured? Changes in the Consumer Price Index reflects inflation of prices. Consumer Price Index (CPI): a measure of the average change over time in the price of a fixed group of products Market Basket: a representative sample of commonly purchased items
Prices of g/s in a market basket are compared to the same g/s in a market basket from another year. If prices go up = inflation.
Example - Have prices increased since 1987? 1987 – Base Year (100) $3000 2007 – Current Year $5000 5000/3000 x 100 = 166 1987 – (100)2007 – (166) (Prices are 66% higher)
Now calculate inflation rate… 1987 – CPI 150 2007 – CPI 166 166-150 150 10.7% inflation rate X 100
CPI: The “Easy” Way http://www.bls.gov/data/home.htm
Why should I care about Inflation? Think about this… You get a 5% pay raise (yippee!) But inflation is 7% (oh no!) Did you really get a pay raise or a pay cut? What about people living on fixed incomes?