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Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Planning the Active Directory and Security.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Planning the Active Directory and Security."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 4 Chapter 4: Planning the Active Directory and Security

2 Chapter 4 Learning Objectives n Explain the contents of the Active Directory n Plan how to set up Active Directory elements such as organizational units, domains, trees, forests, and sites n Plan which Windows 2000 security features to use in an organization, including interactive logon, object security, and services security

3 Chapter 4 Learning Objectives (continued) n Plan how to use groups, group policies, and security templates n Plan IP security measures

4 Chapter 4 Windows NT Domain Structure n Security Accounts Manager (SAM) database holds data on user accounts, groups, and security privileges n One primary domain controller (PDC) has master copy of the SAM n One or more backup domain controllers (BDCs) have backup copies of the SAM

5 Chapter 4 Using a PDC, BDCs, and the SAM database Figure 4-1 Windows NT SAM architecture

6 Chapter 4 Windows 2000 Active Directory n Domain objects including user accounts, computers, servers, printers, groups, security policies, domains, and other objects compose the Active Directory

7 Chapter 4 Active Directory Objects Figure 4-2 Domain objects in the Active Directory

8 Chapter 4 Multimaster Replication n Multimaster replication: In Windows 2000 there can be multiple servers, called domain controllers (DCs), that store the Active Directory and replicate it to each other. Because each DC acts as a master, replication does not stop when one is down. Each DC is a master in its own right.

9 Chapter 4 Multimaster Architecture Figure 4-3 Windows 2000 Active Directory architecture

10 Chapter 4 Schema n Schema: Elements used in the definition of each object contained in the Active Directory, including the object class and its attributes

11 Chapter 4 Example Schema Characteristics of the User Account Class n Unique object name n Globally unique identifier (GUID) associated with each object name n Required attributes n Optional attributes n Syntax of how attributes are defined n Pointers to parent entities

12 Chapter 4 Example User Account Attributes n Username n User’s full name n Password

13 Chapter 4 Schema Example Figure 4-4 Sample schema information for user accounts

14 Chapter 4 Default Object Classes n Domain n User account n Group n Shared drive n Shared folder n Computer n Printer

15 Chapter 4 Object Naming n Common name (CN): The most basic name of an object in the Active Directory, such as the name of a printer n Distinguished name (DN): A name in the Active Directory that contains all hierarchical components of an object, such as that object’s organizational unit and domain, in addition to the object’s common name

16 Chapter 4 Object Naming (continued) n Relative distinguished name (RDN): An object name in the Active Directory that has two or more related components, such as the RDN of a user account name that consists of User (a container for accounts) and the first and last name of the actual user

17 Chapter 4 Namespace n Namespace: A logical area on a network that contains directory services and named objects, and that has the ability to perform name resolution

18 Chapter 4 Types of Namespaces n Contiguous namespace: A namespace in which every child object contains the name of its parent object n Disjointed namespace: A namespace in which the child object name does not resemble the name of its parent object

19 Chapter 4 Active Directory Elements n Domains n Organizational units (OUs) n Trees n Forests n Sites

20 Chapter 4 Active Directory Architecture Figure 4-5 Active Directory hierarchical containers

21 Chapter 4 Functions of a Domain n Provide a security boundary for objects in a common relationship n Establish a set of data to be replicated among DCs n Expedite management of a set of objects

22 Chapter 4 Using a Single domain Figure 4-6 Single domain

23 Chapter 4 Using Multiple Domains Figure 4-7 Using multiple domains

24 Chapter 4 Domain Creation Dos and Don’ts

25 Chapter 4 Domain Creation Dos and Don’ts (continued)

26 Chapter 4 Functions of an OU n Group related objects, such as user accounts and printers, for easier management n Reflect the structure of an organization n Group objects to be administered using the same group policies

27 Chapter 4 Using OUs to Reflect Organizational Structure Figure 4-8 OUs used to reflect the divisional structure of a company

28 Chapter 4 Design Tips for Using OUs n Limit OUs to 10 levels or fewer n OUs use less CPU resources when they are set up horizontally instead of vertically n Each request through an OU level requires CPU time in a search

29 Chapter 4 OU Creation Dos and Don’ts

30 Chapter 4 OU Creation Dos and Don’ts (continued)

31 Chapter 4 Characteristics of a Tree n Member domains are in a contiguous namespace n Member domains can compose a hierarchy n Member domains use the same schema for common objects n Member domains use the same global catalog

32 Chapter 4 Global Catalog n Global catalog: A grand repository for all objects and the most frequently used attributes for each object in all domains. Each tree has one global catalog.

33 Chapter 4 Global Catalog Functions n Authenticating users n Providing lookup and access to resources in all domains n Providing replication of key Active Directory elements n Keeping a copy of the most attributes for all objects

34 Chapter 4 Hierarchical Domains in a Tree Figure 4-9 Tree with hierarchical domains

35 Chapter 4 Kerberos Transitive Trust n Kerberos Transitive Trust Relationship: A set of two-way trusts between two or more domains in which Kerberos security is used.

36 Chapter 4 Trusted and Trusting Domains n Trusted domain: A domain that has been granted security access to resources in another domain n Trusting domain: A domain that allows another domain security access to its resources and objects, such as servers

37 Chapter 4 Tree Creation Dos and Don’ts

38 Chapter 4 Tree Creation Dos and Don’ts (continued)

39 Chapter 4 Planning Tip n Make sure each tree has at least one DC that is also configured as a global catalog n Locate global catalog servers in a network design architecture that enables fast user authentication (so that authentication does not have to be performed over a WAN link, for example)

40 Chapter 4 Characteristics of a Forest n Member trees use a disjointed namespace (but contiguous namespaces within trees) n Member trees use the same schema n Member trees use the same global catalog

41 Chapter 4 Single Forest n Single forest: An Active Directory model in which there is only one forest with interconnected trees and domains that use the same schema and global catalog

42 Chapter 4 Single Forest Architecture Figure 4-10 A forest

43 Chapter 4 Separate Forest n Separate forest: An Active Directory model that links two or more forests in a partnership, but the forests cannot have Kerberos transitive trusts or use the same schema

44 Chapter 4 Separate Forest Architecture Figure 4-11 Separate forest model

45 Chapter 4 Forest Creation Dos and Don’ts

46 Chapter 4 Forest Creation Dos and Don’ts (continued)

47 Chapter 4 Design Tip n When you create a separate forest structure remember that: u Replication cannot take place between forests u The forests use different schema and global catalogs u The forests cannot be easily blended into a single forest in the future

48 Chapter 4 Site n Site: An option in the Active Directory to interconnect IP subnets so that it can determine the fastest route to connect clients for authentication and to connect DCs for replication of the Active Directory. Site information also enables the Active Directory to create redundant routes for DC replication.

49 Chapter 4 Characteristics of a Site n Reflects one or more interconnected subnets (512 Kbps or faster) n Reflects the same boundaries as the LAN n Used for DC replication n Enables clients to access the closest DC n Composed of servers and configuration objects

50 Chapter 4 Site Links n Site link object: An object created in the Active Directory to indicate one or more physical links between two different sites n Site link bridge: An Active Directory object (usually a router) that combines individual site link objects to create faster routes when there are three or more site links

51 Chapter 4 Site Link Architecture Figure 4-12 Site link bridge

52 Chapter 4 Site Creation Dos and Don’ts

53 Chapter 4 Site Creation Dos and Don’ts (continued)

54 Chapter 4 Design Tip n Define sites in the Active Directory on networks that have multiple global catalog servers that reside in different subnets n Use sites to enhance network performance by optimizing authentication and replication

55 Chapter 4 Active Directory Guidelines n Keep the Active Directory implementation as simple as possible n Implement the least number of domains possible n Implement only one domain on most small networks n Use OUs to reflect the organizational structure (instead of using domains for this purpose)

56 Chapter 4 Active Directory Guidelines (continued) n Create only the number of OUs that are necessary n Do not create OUs more than 10 levels deep n Use domains for natural security boundaries n Implement trees and forests only as necessary

57 Chapter 4 Active Directory Guidelines (continued) n Use trees for domains that have a contiguous namespace n Use forests for multiple trees that have disjointed namespaces between them n Use sites in situations where there are multiple IP subnets and geographic locations to improve performance

58 Chapter 4 Basic Types of Active Directory Security n Account or interactive logon security n Object security n Services security

59 Chapter 4 Interactive Logon Security n DC checks that the user account is in the Active Directory n DC verifies the exact user account name and password

60 Chapter 4 Object Security n Security descriptor: An individual security property associated with a Windows 2000 Server object, such as enabling the account MGardner (the security descriptor) to access the folder, Databases n Access control list (ACL): A list of all security descriptors that have been set up for a particular object, such as for a shared folder or a shared printer

61 Chapter 4 Typical ACL Types of Information n User account(s) that can access an object n Permissions that determine the type of access n Ownership of the object

62 Chapter 4 Typical Object Permissions n Deny: No access to the object n Read: Access to view or read the object’s contents n Write: Permission to change the object’s contents or properties n Delete: Permission to remove an object n Create: Permission to add an object n Full Control: Permission for nearly any activity

63 Chapter 4 Example Special Permissions Figure 4-13 Special permissions for a folder

64 Chapter 4 Troubleshooting Tip n Deny permission supercedes other permissions, thus if there is a permissions conflict for one of your users, check the deny permissions associated with that user’s account

65 Chapter 4 Services Security n Windows 2000 enables you to set up security on individual services, such as DHCP

66 Chapter 4 Setting Services Security Figure 4-14 DHCP security

67 Chapter 4 Using Groups n Set up security groups of user accounts as a way to more easily manage security

68 Chapter 4 Setting Up Members of a Group Figure 4-15 DHCP Administrators group

69 Chapter 4 Group Policies n Use group policies to manage security for local servers, OUs, and domains n Employ security templates when you need to manage several different group policies

70 Chapter 4 Example Areas Covered by Group Policies n Account polices n Local server and domain policies n Event log tracking policies n Group restrictions n Service access security n Registry security n File system security

71 Chapter 4 Setting Up Security Templates Figure 4-16 Security Templates snap-in

72 Chapter 4 IP Security n IP security (IPSec): A set of IP-based secure communications and encryption standards created through the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

73 Chapter 4 IP Security Policies n IP security (IPSec) can function in three roles relative to a client: u Client (Respond Only) in which the server uses IPSec, if the client is using it first u Server (Request Security) in which the server uses IPSec by default, but will discontinue using IPSec if it is not supported by the client u Secure Server (Require Security) in which the server only communicates via IPSec

74 Chapter 4 Configuring IPSec Figure 4-17 IP Security Policy Wizard

75 Chapter 4 Troubleshooting Tip n On a network that uses IPSec, if you are having trouble gathering network performance information from some older devices that do not support IPSec, omit the SNMP communications protocol from IPSec

76 Chapter 4 Chapter Summary n Active Directory and security implementation are interrelated n The Active Directory is a set of services for managing Windows 2000 servers n Use Active Directory elements such as OUs, domains, trees, and forests to help manage server objects and resources

77 Chapter 4 Chapter Summary n Use sites to configure network communications for better performance through taking advantage of existing subnets n Groups and group policies enable you to manage security

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