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Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20061 CS4254 Computer Network Architecture and Programming Dr. Ayman A. Abdel-Hamid Computer Science Department Virginia Tech Introduction
© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20062 Outline How is data transferred though the network? Circuit switching versus packet switching How do end systems connect to an edge router? Physical Media Delay in packet-switched Networks
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20063 Data Transfer Through the Network 1/6 Circuit-Switching Dedicated circuit per call (Telephone Network) End-end resources reserved for “call” link bandwidth switch capacity dedicated resources: no sharing circuit-like (guaranteed) performance call setup required
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20064 Data Transfer Through the Network 2/6 Circuit-Switching Dedicated circuit per call (Telephone Network) network resources (e.g., bandwidth) divided into “pieces” pieces allocated to calls and resource piece idle if not used by owning call (no sharing) dividing link bandwidth into “pieces” frequency division multiplexing FDM (analog) time division multiplexing TDM (digital)
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20065 Data Transfer Through the Network 3/6 FDM TDMFrame
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20066 Data Transfer Through the Network 4/6 Packet-Switching Data sent through network in discrete chunks Each end-to-end data stream divided into packets Users’ packets share network resources Each packet uses full link bandwidth Resource contention aggregate resource demand can exceed amount available Congestion packets queue, wait for link use store and forward packets move one hop at a time transmit over link wait turn at next link
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20067 Data Transfer Through the Network 5/6 Statistical multiplexing Connection peak rates allowed to exceed link bandwidth Uses statistical information about users and system to provide QoS (Quality of Service)
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20068 Data Transfer Through the Network 6/6 Packet-Switching approaches datagram network destination address determines next hop routes may change during session analogy: driving, asking directions virtual circuit network Requires call setup each packet carries tag (virtual circuit ID), tag determines next hop fixed path determined at call setup time, remains fixed thru call routers maintain per-call state
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 20069 Packet-Switching versus Circuit-Switching Allows more users to use the network (How?) Great for bursty data resource sharing no call setup Excessive congestion packet delay and loss protocols needed for reliable data transfer, congestion control How to provide circuit-like behavior? bandwidth guarantees needed for audio/video apps
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200610 Access Networks How do end systems connect to an edge router? Residential access networks Modem dial-up, ISDN, ADSL, and cable modems Institutional access networks (school, company) LANs Wireless access networks Wireless LANs and CDPD
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200611 Physical Media 1/6 physical link: transmitted data bit propagates across link guided media signals propagate in solid media: copper, coax, and fiber unguided media signals propagate freely, e.g., radio waves Guided media Twisted-Pair (TP) Two insulated copper wires Category 3: traditional phone wires, 10 Mbps Ethernet Category 5: 100Mbps Ethernet Two varieties: UTP (Unshielded TP) and STP (Shielded TP)
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200612 Physical Media 2/6 Guided media Twisted-Pair (TP)
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200613 Physical Media 3/6 UTP Connector (RJ stands for Registered Jack) Guided media Twisted-Pair (TP)
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200614 Physical Media 4/6 Guided media Coaxial Cable wire (signal carrier) within a wire (shield) baseband: single channel on cable broadband: multiple channels on cable Bidirectional common use in 10Mbps Ethernet
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200615 Physical Media 5/6 Guided media Fiber-Optic glass fiber carrying light pulses high-speed operation 100Mbps Ethernet high-speed point-to-point transmission (e.g., 5 Gbps) low error rate
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200616 Physical Media 6/6 Unguided media Wireless signal carried in electromagnetic spectrum (bidirectional) propagation environment effects: reflection, obstruction by objects, and interference Wireless link types Infrared (300 GHz to 400 THz) Radio and microwave (3 KHz to 300 GHz) Radio: multicast communication such as radio, television, and paging systems Microwave: unicast communication such as cellular telephones, satellite, and wireless LANs Wireless LAN: 2Mbps, 11Mbps, and 54 Mbps Satellite up to 50Mbps channel (or multiple smaller channels) 270 msec end-to-end delay geosynchronous (GEO) versus LEO satellites
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200617 Delay in Packet-Switched Networks 1/4 Packets experience delay on end-to-end path Four sources of delay at each hop Nodal processing, Queuing delay, transmission delay, and propagation delay
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200618 Delay in Packet-Switched Networks 2/4 Nodal processing check bit errors and determine output link Queuing delay time waiting at output link for transmission depends on congestion level of router Transmission delay R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) time to send bits into link = L/R Propagation delay d = length of physical link s = propagation speed in medium (~2x10 8 m/sec) propagation delay = d/s
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200619 Delay in Packet-Switched Networks 3/4 Transmission delay versus Propagation delay The transmission delay the amount of time required for the network entity to push out the packet function of the packet's length and the transmission rate of the link has nothing to do with the distance between two network entities The propagation delay is the time it takes a bit to propagate from one network entity to the next a function of the distance between the two network entities has nothing to do with the packet's length or the transmission rate of the link.
Introduction© Dr. Ayman Abdel-Hamid, CS4254 Spring 200620 Delay in Packet-Switched Networks 4/4 Queuing Delay R=link bandwidth (bps) L=packet length (bits) a=average packet arrival rate (packets/sec) traffic intensity = La/R La/R ~ 0: average queuing delay small La/R <= 1: delays become large La/R > 1: more “work” arriving than can be serviced
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