Behavior Management Strategies Introductions Syllabus Code of Ethics for Educators Projects 1-6.
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Behavior Management Strategies Introductions Syllabus Code of Ethics for Educators Projects 1-6
Every child is a unique individual, similar to all other children in many respects, yet different from all other children.
Interventions that impact the cognitive domain may influence the child’s affective behavior, that interventions in the psychomotor domain may impact cognitive and affective learning and so on and so forth.
Questions that are repeatedly asked by teachers, parents and other professionals How can this child’s behavior be changed? How can this group behavior be changed? Should I punish this behavior? Should I discuss this behavior with the individual? Should I ignore this behavior? Will this intervention work? Is it ethical to use this intervention technique? Will I harm or hurt the child?
Behavior management interventions are defined as all those actions (and conscious inaction) teachers and parents engage in to enhance the probability that children, individually and in groups will develop effective behaviors that are personally fulfilling, productive, and socially acceptable (Shea & Bauer, 1987)
Group activity Groups of 4 Make a list of interventions that teachers use to influence children’s behavior - either as a group or individually. List intervention and proposed targeted behavior…for example - go to the end of the line is frequently the intervention teachers use for pushing or cutting into a line out of turn.
Does this intervention or activity….. Treat the student(s) with dignity? Does this intervention or activity teach the student new skills? Does the plan require and support an environmental analysis? Is the response clear to everyone (including the student)? Is there a sequential response to the targeted behavior?
Principles of classroom order Develop a positive climate Establish the basis for a positive learning environment. Apply preventive techniques Institute collaborative relationships with parents and other professionals for disciplinary concerns Assure that the interventions matches the problem Evaluate learner progress (Smith & Rivera, 1995)
Self discipline is the goal of all behavior management strategies. It is the process of attaining control over one’s personal behavior in a variety of circumstances in association with many individuals and groups.
ETHICS When control of human behavior and learning is concerned, ethical issues cannot be swept aside. Behavior management causes confusion, concern, and in some cases anxiety. It is an awesome responsibility. This concern is especially dominant in the area of aversive stimuli and punishment with children and youth.
Ethical questions Who shall decide who will be the manager of behavior? Who shall decide whose behavior is to be managed? How can behavior managers be controlled? What type of interventions shall be applied? Who shall determine the interventions to be legitimized? To what ends will interventions be applied?
When these questions are applied to the training of children, there may be profound implications for educational practice. What is a child? Is a child free to make choices? Should a child be free to make choices? Does a child act in accordance with specific principles of behavior that observable, measurable, and repetitive?
In educational settings... Can external forces change a child’s behavior? Can an educator modify a child’ behavior? Can another child or parent change a child’s behavior? Who shall determine whose and which behaviors are to be changed? Which interventions shall be applied in the classroom/school to change children’s behaviors? Who will monitor?
Ethics are defined as the rules that guide moral (right, good or correct) behavior.
School of Ethics: Formalism- suggests that all individuals are born with rights and needs that are super- ordinate to the interest of society. Utilitarianism- suggests that the interests of society precede the interests of the individual. Individual rights are given by society and individuals are valued for their actual or potential contributions to society (or the burden they put on society).
Utilitarianism point of view The use of aversive techniques is deemed acceptable if it facilitates the movement of the individual from the position of “burden on society” to contributing member.
Ethics from 4 different perspectives Political Legal Research Professional
Political Because schools are seeking to be centers of excellence, students with challenging behaviors are rarely looked upon as an asset.
Legal Courts don’t actively set standards, they react to misuse or abuse.
Research Implications of research in behavior management must be approached with great caution.
Professional Professional guidelines have been developed. Council for Exceptional Children
Code of Ethics http://www.cec.sped.org/ps/code.html Management of behavior –Special education professionals participate with other professionals and with parents in an interdisciplinary effort in the management of behavior.
Professionals will 1. Apply only those disciplinary methods and behavioral procedures which they have been instructed to use and which do not undermine the dignity of the individual or the basic human rights of persons with exceptionalities, such as corporal punishment.
Professionals will 2. Clearly specify the goals and objectives for behavior management practices in the persons’ exceptionalities Individualized Education Program 3. Conform to policies, statutes, and rules established by state/provincial and local agencies relating to judicious application of disciplinary methods and behavioral procedures.
Professionals will 4. Take adequate measures to discourage, prevent, and intervene when a colleague’s behavior is perceived as being detrimental to exceptional students. 5. Refrain from aversive techniques unless repeated trials of other methods have failed and only after consultation with parents and appropriate agency officials.
Rights of Children Principle of normalization Principle of fairness Principle of respect
Principle of normalization The individual with a disability should obtain an existence as close to the normal as possible
Principle of fairness Is fundamental fairness Due process of law Is the intervention selected to change this child’s behavior fair to the child as an individual?
Principle of respect Is one’s right to be treated as a human being, and not as an animal or a statistic. All interventions must be judged against this question.
It cannot be denied that a beaten child will obey, that an electric cattle prod will get a child to pay attention, and that segregation and isolation will reduce conflict!
Summary of ethical and professional guidelines Explore alternative interventions prior to implementation of aversive techniques. Explore potential side effects and the extent of potential injury as a consequence of interventions Determine whether the student understands the contingency Individual administering intervention must be trained and comfortable with the intervention.
Empirical evidence should exist to show that the intervention is effective. The student’s program should be consistent with the intervention and input from parents. Program should be closely monitored and documented. Informed consent should be obtained. Principle of normalization should be implemented Procedure should be fair, that is appropriate in regard to the gravity of the offense, and should provide the individual with an opportunity for success. Dignity and worth of individual should be respected. Committee review and due process procedures should be applied. Least restrictive principle should be applied.