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1 The Brain Part II. 2 The Brain The Nervous System  Made up of neurons communicating with other neurons.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Brain Part II. 2 The Brain The Nervous System  Made up of neurons communicating with other neurons."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Brain Part II

2 2 The Brain The Nervous System  Made up of neurons communicating with other neurons

3 3 Drawing of the brain

4 4 Central Nervous System Made up of the brain and spinal cord.

5 5 Peripheral Nervous System somatic nervous system  controls the movements of our skeletal muscles  Controls glands ANS  Flight or fight

6 6 Types of Nerves Nerves:  Sensory Neurons  Interneurons  Motor Neurons

7 7 Somatic Nervous System Controls the movements of our skeletal muscles.

8 8 Peripheral Nervous System Consists of the somatic & ANS

9 9 ANS Controls the glands and the muscles of our internal organs.

10 10 Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous System Sympathetic: arouses us for defense action Parasympathetic: It conserves energy as it calms you by decreasing your heartbeat, lowering your blood sugar, etc.

11 11 Endocrine System Endocrine system influences many aspects of our lives, e.g. growth, reproduction, metabolism, mood, working to keep everything in balance while we respond to stress, exertion, and even our own thoughts.

12 12 Hormones Secreted by the endocrine system – another form of chemical messenger. Influence our interest in sex, food, and aggression.

13 13 Adrenal Glands Located on top of the kidneys. Release epinephrine and norepinephrine (also called adrenaline and noradrenaline).

14 14 The brain stem & medulla The brain stem begins where the spinal cord enters the skull swelling slightly, forming the medulla. Here lies the controls for your heartbeat & breathing.

15 15 Pituitary Glands Pea-sized structure located in the base of the brain – controlled by the hypothalamus.

16 16 Reticular Formation Experiment: Moruzzi & Magoun – electrically stimulated the reticular formation of a sleeping cat The role of the reticular formation

17 17 Thalamus Thalamus = switching station Receives information from all the senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions that deal with seeing, hearing, tasting, and touching.

18 18 Hippocampus Within the Limbic System, the hypothalamus influences hunger, regulates thirst, body temperature, and sexual behavior.

19 19 Amygdala If we electrically stimulate the amygdala (within the Limbic System). 1939 kluver & Bucy

20 20 Hypothalamus Olds & Milner (1954) – discovered that the hypothalamus was the “reward center”.

21 21 The role of Dopamine & pleasure Dopamine has been found in animal studies to be released when certain pleasures are taking place, e.g. sex, drinking, etc.

22 22 Addictive Behaviors? Some researchers believe that addictive disorders, such as alcoholism, drug abuse, and binge eating, may stem from a reward deficiency syndrome.

23 23 The Phineas Gage Story Frontal lobe damage was first connected to personality changes after the classic case of Phineas Gage. In 1848, a rod was shot up through his left cheek out of the top of his skull leaving his frontal lobe massively damaged.

24 24 Frontal Lobes The association areas within the frontal lobes helps us to judge, plan, and process new memories.

25 25 Parts of the brain involved with language Aphasia: is the impaired use of language. Broca’s area – damage to the specific area to the left frontal lobe leads to problems forming words while still being able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech. Disrupts speaking

26 26 Wernicke’s Area Wernicke’s area – damage to a specific area of the left temporal lobe – people could speak only meaningless words. Disrupts understanding

27 27 Angular Gyrus Receives the visual information from the visual area and recodes it into the auditory form, which Wernicke’s area uses to derive its meaning. Damage to the angular gyrus – leaves the person able to speak and understand but unable to read.

28 28 Visual cortex Receives written words as visual stimulation

29 29 Motor cortex The area which controls the motor cortex as it creates the pronounced word.

30 30 Right vs. Left Brain  Left Brain Verbal Speaking writing Right Brain  Recognize faces  Nonverbal  Spatial tasks  Music & Art

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