2 Abnormal Behavior in Historical Context Chapter 1
3 Outline Understanding Psychopathology What is Normal?What is Psychological Disorder?Different Approaches to PsychopathologyThe Supernatural TraditionThe Biological TraditionThe Psychological TraditionThe Present: The Scientific Method and an Integrative Approach
4 Understanding Psychopathology What is normal?Provide examples of what is normal and what isn’tHow does the notion of what is normal differ across cultures?Is there a fixed definition of normal just like there are laws of physics?So, how do we construe the definition of what is normal and what is not?
5 Understanding Psychopathology What is normal?The definition of ABNORMAL used inDSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition)Abnormal describes behavioral, emotional, or cognitive dysfunctions that are unexpected in their cultural context and associated with personal distress or substantial impairment in functioning.
6 Understanding Psychopathology JudyPsychological disorder consists of three components:Psychological dysfunctionBreakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning (continuum vs. dimension)Personal distressBeing extremely upset (caution – sometimes it is normal to be extremely upset)Atypical or not culturally expected behaviorSocial norms and their possible misuse
7 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Supernatural Tradition mentalMental illness is caused by demons and witchesShock therapy (pit of snakes, ice-cold water)Exorcism (religious rituals to get rid of evil spirits)Mental illness is caused by stressRest, sleep, a healthy and happy environmentMental illness is caused by the movements of the moon and the starsPracelsuslunatic
8 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Biological TraditionHippocratesMental illness caused by brain pathology, head trauma, heredityGalenHumoral theory of disorders (blood, black bile, yellow bile, phlegm)Pasteur’s germ theory of diseaseMental illness can be caused by a bacterial infection (syphilis)John P. GreyInsanity is always due to physical causes and patients suffering from mental illness should be treated as physically ill
9 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Biological TraditionFocus on diagnosisSearch for biological causes and classificationTherapyUndiscovered psychopathology – reduced interest in treating patientsInsulin shock therapyElectroconvulsive therapy ECTChemical drugs
10 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Psychological TraditionPlato and AristotleMoral therapy18th century – treating patients as normally as possible in normal environmentsPhilippe Pinel, Benjamin Rush (father of american psychiatry)Mental hygiene movementDorothea Dix – 19th centuryEffort to improve care for mentally disordered and make it more accessible
11 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Psychological TraditionPsychoanalytic theory Anna O.Mesmerism – ancestor of hypnosis, using unconscious processes in therapyCatharsis – rapid and sudden release of emotional tensionStructure of the mind (id, ego, superego)Defense mechanisms (coping styles in response to particular situations, e.g. displacement, denial, projection, rationalization, sublimation)Psychosexual stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital)Therapy (free association, dream analysis, hypnosis)
13 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Psychological TraditionHumanistic TheorySelf-actualizing – we need a freedom to grow in order to reach our highest potentialMaslow (hierarchy of needs)Person-centered therapy (Rogers) – unconditional positive regard and empathyBehaviorist TheoryClassical conditioning (Ivan Pavlov)Little Albert (Watson)Systematic desensitization (Joseph Wolpe)Behavior therapy (conditioning and reward)
14 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Present: An Integrative Approach BedlamIntegration of biological, psychological, social and other approaches to diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorderScientific approach to mental disordersPrevalence (number of people in the population suffering from a disorder at a given time)Incidence (number of new cases appearing during a specific time period)Course (pattern of development, e.g. chronic course, episodic course, time-limited course)Prognosis (anticipated course of a disorder)
15 Different Approaches to Psychopathology The Present: An Integrative ApproachPsychopathologyThe scientific study of psychological disordersMental health professionalsClinical psychologists (more severe disorders)Counseling psychologists (vocational issues)Psychiatrists (emphasize biological treatments)Psychiatric social workers (treatment focused on social and family issuesPsychiatric nurses (treatment in hospitals)