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New Physics from Cosmic Neutrinos: Extra Dimensions and Black Holes Jonathan Feng UC Irvine 1 st ANITA Collaboration Meeting, UCI 24 November 2002

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ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 2 UHE Neutrinos Probe astrophysical sources, given standard model interactions Probe new fundamental physics, given standard cosmogenic source N Black Hole is the largest, most robust interaction predicted by extra dimensions

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 3 The Standard Model Where’s gravity? Many deep problems, but one obvious one: For protons, gravity is 10 -36 times weaker. Equal for m proton = m Planck ~ 10 18 GeV, energies far beyond experiment.

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 4 Gravity Is Weak gravity EM Strength r

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 5 Extra Dimensions Suppose photons are confined to D=4, but gravity propagates in n extra dimensions of size L: For r L, F gravity ~ 1/r 2 For r L, F gravity ~ 1/r 2+n Garden Hose

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 6 gravity EM Strength r … 1/m strong Gravity Becomes Stronger

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 7 Strong Gravity at the Electroweak Scale Suppose m strong is 1 TeV, the electroweak unification scale The number of extra dims n then fixes L n=1 excluded by solar system, but n=2, 3,… are allowed by tests of Newtonian gravity

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 8 Probing Extra Dimensions Modifications of Newtonian gravity at sub- mm scales Kaluza-Klein graviton effects at colliders, in supernovae, etc. … Microscopic black hole production

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 9 BH creation requires E COM > m strong (Unique feature: robust and generic for high energies!) In 4D, m strong ~ 10 18 GeV, far above accessible energies ~ TeV But with extra dimensions, m strong ~ TeV is possible, can create micro black holes in elementary particle collisions! BHs from Particle Collisions

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 10 Black Holes at Colliders BH created when two particles of high enough energy pass within Schwarzschild radius LHC: E COM = 14 TeV pp BH + X Find as many as 1 BH produced per second Dimopoulos, Landsberg (2001)

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 11 Micro Black Hole Properties Classically: Stable Quantum mechanically: decay through Hawking evaporation Lifetime ~ M 3 : M BH ~ M sun forever M BH ~ TeV 10 -27 s Temperature T H ~ 1/M : M BH ~ M sun T H ~ 0.01 K photons M BH ~ TeV T H ~ 100 GeV q, g, e, , ,, , W, Z, h, G

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 12 Collider Signature Multiplicity ~ 10-50 Hadron:lepton = 5:1 Spherical events with leptons, many jets De Roeck (2002)

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 13 Black Holes from Cosmic Rays Cosmic rays – the high energy frontier Observed events with 10 19 eV E COM ~ 100 TeV But meager fluxes! Can we harness this energy? Kampert, Swordy (2001)

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 14 Cosmic Neutrinos One Approach: Cosmic rays create ultra- high energy neutrinos: BH gives inclined showers starting deep in the atmosphere Feng, Shapere (2001)

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 15 Deep Inclined Showers

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 16 Cosmic Ray Black Holes Cosmogenic flux yields a few black holes every minute somewhere in the Earth’s atmosphere Current bounds from Fly’s Eye and AGASA comparable to or better than all known bounds (Tevatron, etc.) Anchordoqui, Feng, Goldberg, Shapere (2002) M strong (TeV) Lower Bounds for 1 to 7 Extra Dimensions n=7 n=1

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 17 Auger Observatory Auger could detect ~100 black holes per year Provides first chance to see black holes from extra dimensions M strong (TeV) Feng, Shapere (2001)

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 18 Other Cosmic BH Work Auger, AGASA [Feng, Shapere (2001), Anchordoqui, Goldberg (2001), Emparan, Masip, Rattazzi (2001), Anchordoqui, Feng, Goldberg (2002)] Fly’s Eye/HiRes [Ringwald, Tu (2001), Anchordoqui, Feng, Goldberg, Shapere (2001)] AMANDA, IceCube [Uehara (2001), Kowalski, Ringwald, Tu (2002), Alvarez-Muniz, Feng, Halzen, Han, Hooper (2002), Friess, Han, Hooper (2002)] RICE [McKay, et al. (2002)] EUSO/OWL [Iyer Dutta, Reno, Sarcevic (2002)] p-Branes, Warped Scenarios [Alvarez-Muniz, Halzen, Han, Hooper (2001), Ahn, Cavaglia, Olinto (2002), Jain, Kar, Panda, Ralston (2002), Anchordoqui, Goldberg, Shapere (2002), Han, Kribs, McElrath (2002), …] ANITA?

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 19 What You Could Do With A Black Hole If You Made One Discover extra dimensions Test Hawking evaporation, BH properties Explore last stages of BH evaporation, quantum gravity, information loss problem ……

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24 November 2002ANITA Collaboration MeetingFeng 20 Conclusions Gravity is either intrinsically weak or is strong but diluted by extra dimensions If gravity is strong at 1 TeV, extra dimensions will be discovered through black holes from cosmic rays Anchordoqui, Feng, Goldberg, Shapere (2001) M strong (TeV)

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