# ELECTRONIC/COMPUTER AGE. Integrated Circuits –Integrated circuits have become more and more complex. One measure of their complexity is the number of.

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ELECTRONIC/COMPUTER AGE

Integrated Circuits –Integrated circuits have become more and more complex. One measure of their complexity is the number of transistors they use  SSI – Small Scale Integration : several dozen transistors  MSI – Medium Scale Integration : up to several hundred transistors  LSI – Large Scale Integration : up to several thousand transistors  VLSI – Very Large Scale Integration : one hundred thousand or more transistors

Computers –The first mechanical adding machine was invented by Pascal in 1645 –The first calculator was developed in the mid-1800s by Charles Babbage –Ada, Babbage’s co-worker was the first computer programmer –Hollerith devised a way of automating the Census. It had a Machine to punch the cards (input) Tabulator for sorting the cards (processing) Counter to record the results (output) Sorting box for rearranging the cards reprocessing (feedback) –In 1911, Hollerith’s company became a part of IBM, the largest computer company in the world today –ICs brought computers into household use –Microcomputers are used home appliances, electronic games and automobiles

Computers System –A computer under program control works on a list of instructions called a program –Information is represented by 0s and 1s in today’s computers - -- binary digits or bits –Any decimal number can be represented by a binary number and vice versa –A group of eight bits are called byte. Data can be represented by kByte, MByte and GByte  Computer Processor –It reads the program and changes the instructions into actions –The power of a processor refers to how fast it is --- MIPS

Computer Systems  Memory –A tiny chip can store more than one million characters –A RAM stores the program and information currently being worked on --- primary storage –A secondary storage stores information for later use --- floppy, hard disk and magnetic tape –Writing to disk --- magnetizing tiny bits of iron oxide on a magnetic tape through a head (an electromagnet) –Reading from disk --- changing the magnetic fields back to electrical impulses –Compact disks can store audio, video files in billions of bytes or GBs

Computer Systems  Input –Information provided to a computer is called input –Different forms can be keyboard, hard disks, floppy disks, optical character reader and human speech –Others can be mouse, light pen and touch-sensitive screen  Output –Video monitor or CRT screen, printer, plotter, audio and video –A combination of keyboard and monitor is called a terminal –Printers --- dot matrix, daisy wheel, laser –Music and voices can be made in a computer using a synthesizer –Voice synthesizers reproduce speech --- telephone messages –Data communication --- connecting computers to each other –Modems --- modulation and demodulation

Computers, Large & Small –Computers come in different sizes with different memory space, processor speeds etc  Microcomputers –Found in appliances, automobiles, PCs –They can be 8-bit, 16-bit or 32-bit machines  Minicomputers –Slightly larger than microcomputers and are shared by several people in a company –They handle 16, 24, 32, or more bits at a time

Computes, Large & Small  Mainframe Computers –Used by universities and government agencies and large companies –They are used to make payroll checks, warehouse records etc –They carry out millions of instructions per second  Supercomputers –The fastest and the largest computers and are most often used for research –Its speed is measured in floating point operations per second or FLOPS and GFLOPS –The power of supercomputer twenty years ago is now available on a desktop PC

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