UNIT 4 BIOLOGY Continuity and Change: Genetics and Evolution.
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UNIT 4 BIOLOGY Continuity and Change: Genetics and Evolution
Assessments SACs Summary report of a genetic cross (practical) DNA technologies (GTAC) Report on evolutionary relationships Presentation on gene technologies EXAMINATION
Introducing genetics Chromosomes and meiosis Alleles, phenotypes and test crosses Linked genes and crossing over Pedigrees
Structure and function of DNA Genes The genetic code – what does it mean? Molecules involved in building DNA and proteins Genomics Gene mutations
How the cell uses DNA Transcription and translation (building a protein) Self-replication of DNA The relationship between the code present on the DNA and the characteristics on the organism
DNA and technology How do we manipulate DNA? The tools and techniques required Electrophoresis Applications of technology in genetics
Introduction to evolution Variations in a population Natural selection as the agent for evolution Special DNA: mitochondrial
Evolution theory History of evolution theory Evidence for evolution Different types and patterns of evolution
Human evolution Relationships between modern humans and ancient human-like creatures “Monkey to man”? Cultural and technological evolution: how does it impact our biology?
Human intervention in evolution Disruption of evolution Technology use Selective breeding Reproductive and therapeutic cloning
Today: introducing genes Where are our genes? What are genes made of? What is the history of DNA?
What is genetics? Genetics is the study of heredity Animals, plants and micro- organisms are studied E. coli
Chromosomes Are long thread like structures found in the nucleus Made of a chemical called DNA Some DNA is also found in the mitochondria and chloroplasts
Homologous chromosomes 2 copies of each chromosome in each somatic (body) cell 2 copies of each gene in each cell Humans have 46 chromosomes in each body cell What is the difference between a male and female? Karyotype of a human male
History In 1953 Watson and Crick unravelled the structure of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Double helix Controversy of how results were obtained
DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Double helix which looks like a twisted ladder Made up of nucleotides containing a phosphate, sugar and a base
Bases Specific base pairing Adenine - Thymine Guanine - Cytosine DNA is universal – all living things from bacteria to plants and animals have the same 4 bases
DNA and chromosomes DNA coils tightly around proteins Like a twisting piece of string Protein