1 Personality Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.. 2 Personality Questions about human nature are as old as nature itself. Theophrastus (372-287 BC) – a student.
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Presentation on theme: "1 Personality Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.. 2 Personality Questions about human nature are as old as nature itself. Theophrastus (372-287 BC) – a student."— Presentation transcript:
2 Personality Questions about human nature are as old as nature itself. Theophrastus (372-287 BC) – a student of Aristotle Men and women fall into categories or typologies.
3 Examples of Typology The greedy man The gossip The patron of rascals The slacker
4 Personality Do categories like that capture the essence of the person? Reflect social stereotypes? Personality refers to those psychological characteristics of an individual that are general, enduring, distinctive, integrated, and functional.
5 Personality Sometimes a particular combination of qualities best characterizes your personality. Wild and crazy Young and restless Dazed and confused
6 Personality = how we handle the demands of the world Personality also refers to how we handle the demands of the world. Is it functional? Not functional? Why do some people earn straight As when others go straight to jail?
7 Personality & Psychopathology Their theories of psychopathology have become also theories of personality.
8 An example For example, individuals who have borderline personality disorder show marked fluctuations in identity, mood, and behavior.
9 Theories of Personality Sometimes personality psychology is called personology.
10 Psychodynamic Approach Sigmund Freud Hysteria Freud believed that sexual conflicts from childhood caused this condition.
11 Assumptions about human nature Energy = libido Drives and instincts provide this energy We are motivated to satisfy instinctive needs. How do conflicts arise?
13 Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Viennese physician trained in neurology. Joseph Breuer – hypnosis. Technique of catharsis, the so-called talking cure. Free Association
14 The Structure of Personality Freud proposed that the mind has 3 parts: the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious. The conscious is what we are aware of at a particular moment: “My favorite television show is about to start”. The preconscious is whatever we can voluntarily call into awareness, such as telephone numbers, birthdays & definitions of psychology terms!
15 Structure The unconscious contains thoughts, feelings, and desires of which we are not aware.
16 Revision to his view of the mind Later in Freud’s career, he revised his view of the mind. He described mental functioning with a new set of distinctions. Id – pleasure principle. Dominated by wishes and impulses. The ego operates according to the reality principle, which makes our thinking rational and logical.
17 Revision Superego - internalization of parental and societal values. Freud regarded the id, ego, and superego as constantly interacting in a given situation. How they blend together for an individual explains his/her particular personality.
18 The Psychosexual stages of Personality Development Oral: B to 1The child satisfies his/her need through activities involving the mouth; nursing, chewing, biting. Anal: 1 to 3Gratification centers on elimination, either retaining or expelling feces. Phallic: 3 to 5 Satisifaction is achieved through self-stimulation of the genitals.
19 The Psychosexual stages of Personality Development Latency 6 to puberty Gratification has no particular focus. Genital (puberty) Satisfaction is achieved through sexual contact with others.
20 Concepts to cover The Oedipus complex Women do not resolve the Oedipal complex as fully as men do. During the phallic stage, at about 6 years old, children enter the latency period where sexual impulses are curbed. Development in other domains – cognitive, moral, social become important.
21 Concepts to cover Fixation Fixation =we do not pass successfully through a stage b/c we are either frustrated by not enough satisfaction or indulged by too much.
22 Problems with Freud Lack of research Views about women