Effective Sentences Workshop The Writing Studio Bate 2005.
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Effective Sentences Workshop The Writing Studio Bate 2005
What is Parallelism? It means maintaining consistency in form of expression across corresponding elements of a sentence.
Maintain consistency with –ing words Incorrect: Her duties include typing correspondence, filing documents, and answer the phone. ** The last item in the list of duties, “answer the phone” is not parallel because it does not begin with an “ing” verb form. Correct: Her duties include typing correspondence, filing documents, and answering the phone.
Maintain consistency with noun forms Incorrect: At the university, committing plagiarism can result in suspension or being expelled from school. * The second item in the list, “being expelled from school” is not parallel with the first item, “suspension” because it does not have the same “ion” form. Correct: At the university, committing plagiarism can result in suspension or expulsion from school.
Subordination and Coordination It refers to a sentence construction strategy in which the writer puts the main idea of a sentence in the main clause and minor but related ideas in subordinate clauses or phrases. This helps keep emphasis on the main idea of the sentence while also highlighting the relationship between the main clause and the subordinate one.
Words commonly used to begin subordinate clauses: After, Before, Though, Where, Who Although, If, Unless, Whether,Whom AsSince, Until, While, Whose Because, That, When, Which
Sample sentences improved through subordination: Without subordination: Harold counted sheep. He finally fell asleep. With subordination:While counting sheep, Harold finally fell asleep. (shows time relationship between events and eliminates short, choppy sentences)
What is Coordination? Coordination allows you to put equal emphasis on two or more ideas in the same sentence.
Words and punctuation frequently used to join independent clauses:,and,or,yet;furthermore,but,nor;moreover;therefore,for,so;however
sample sentences improved through coordination: Without Coordination: My brother broke his leg. He recovered quickly. With Coordination: My brother broke his leg, but he recovered quickly.
What is sentence variety? It means altering the grammatical structure of your sentences to create more interesting and engaging prose.
Three different sentence structures that can be used to express the same idea Subject-verb: The author wrote in 1850 but was not published until a century later. Participle: Writing in 1850, the author was not published until a century later. Preposition: In 1850 the author wrote but was not published until a century later.
In the passive voice, the subject of a sentence receives the action. In the active voice, the subject of the sentence does the action. What is the difference between passive and active voice?
Can I ever use passive voice in a sentence? Passive voice can be useful and sometimes is necessary Examples: When the person, place, or thing that receives action is more important. The meal was cooked by Ryan. (Instead of “Ryan cooked the meal.”)
When the subject of the sentence is unknown. The jewelry was stolen. (We don’t know who stole the jewelry!) When the conventions of the writing you are doing require passive voice. In scientific or technical writing, documenting procedures is very important. Passive voice is often used in this kind of writing in order to emphasize what was done in a procedure, rather than emphasize the person performing the procedure. For instance, a surveyor would not write, “I measured one square acre of land.” Instead, he/she would write, “One square acre of land was measured.”
Avoid Shifts in Voice: Moving from active to passive voice confuses readers.