# CJ 526 Statistical Analysis Research methods and statistics.

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CJ 526 Statistical Analysis Research methods and statistics

Assumptions 1. there is order in nature 2. every event has an explanation 3. we will never know everything

Terminology Variable: any trait or characteristic which can take on a range of values Hypothesis: Question or statement about the relationship between two or more variables i.e., is there a relationship between number of police on the streets and the crime rate?

Terms Independent variable (IV): a variable thought to have an effect Dependent variable (DV): affected variable

Terms Units of analysis: units observed and described to create summary descriptions of all units and to explain differences among them Individuals Groups (i.e., families, gangs) Organizations (police departments) Social artifacts (traffic accidents, court cases, prison riots)

Terms Theory: an explanation that systematically organizes observations and hypotheses Basic vs. Applied Research Basic--why questions; Applied--solve problems Cross-sectional vs. Longitudinal Research Experimental vs. Ex Post Facto Research

Types of research methods Experiments (manipulation and control) Surveys (written and interviews) Field or observational research Record or archival research (content analysis, secondary analysis) Case study Evaluation research

Choosing a research problem Reviewing the literature: abstracts and journals, books, collected readings, computer searches (NCJRS), CD ROMS, and the internet Conceptualization of variables, hypotheses, questions

Steps in research Selecting how to measure variables (operationalization) Selecting subjects for the study: population and sample Method: making observations and measurements Data processing and analysis

Steps in research (continued) Interpreting the results and their applications