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MICROELETTRONICA Design methodologies Lection 8. Design methodologies (general) Three domains –Behavior –Structural –physic Three levels inside –Architectural.

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Presentation on theme: "MICROELETTRONICA Design methodologies Lection 8. Design methodologies (general) Three domains –Behavior –Structural –physic Three levels inside –Architectural."— Presentation transcript:

1 MICROELETTRONICA Design methodologies Lection 8

2 Design methodologies (general) Three domains –Behavior –Structural –physic Three levels inside –Architectural –Logic/RTL –Physic

3 Evaluation of an I.C: Performance – speed, power, function, flexibility Size of the die Time to design – i.e cost of engineering Easy of verification, test generation and testability BUT the system could be also realized by micro, FPGA, PAL, etc. ECONOMIC EVALUATION

4 Design principles Hierarchy Regularity Modularity Locality

5 Hierarchy Divide and conquer Divide in modules and repeating untill each submodule is comprehensible  prebuilt component available Virtual components  IP

6 Regularity Similar submodules All level of design hierarchy: equal size transistors, standard cell type library, parameterized RAM, etc. Design reuse

7 Modularity Well defined functions and interfaces Interaction with other modules well characterized Behavioral, structural and physical interfaces (function, signals, electrical and timing constraints)

8 Locality The internal variables of a module don’t interest other modules  correspond to reduce global variables in HDL Advantage for the clock

9 Design methods Microprocessor/DSP Programmable logic Gate Array and Sea of Gates Cell-based Full custom Platform-based design (SoC)

10 Programmable Logic: PAL Connections of planes are realized with fuses or EPROM or EEPROM

11 Programmable Logic: FPGA

12 Sea of Gates Uninterrupted lines of Pand N diffusions Metal interconnects over non used transistors Lines are interrupted connecting PMOS to Vdd and NMOS to Vss 2-5 masks – till three levels of metals, vias, interconnects

13 Cell-based SSI Memory System level modules (processors, serial interfaces, etc. Mixed signal modules Possible automatic generation of MSI modules Option for power (1X, 2X, 4X….) and inputs

14 Full custom Symbolic layout (old – place transistors, wires, contacts with graphic editor) Silicon compilation: HDL that give all the views of a project, i.e. behavior, timing, logical Placement in a standard cell layout

15 Platform-based design (SoC) Processors, memory, I/O functions, FPGA Use of IP, hw/sw codesign

16 Design Flows From behavioral specifications to layout Front end till RTL synthesis Back end from structural specifications to Physical synthesis and layout

17 ASIC Design flow Fig. 8.39

18 Automated Layout Generation Fig. 8.41

19 Layout Design: Timing Fig. 8.43

20 Design Economics S total =C total /(1-m) S total : Selling price Total cost –Non-recurring engineering costs –Recurring engineering costs –Fixed costs

21 Non-recurring engineering costs F total =E total +P total Engineering costs –Personnel cost (architectural design, logic, simulation, layout, timing, DRC, test) Prototype manufacturing costs –Computer –CAD software –Education Costs (per annum): Personnel $150 K,computer $ 10K, CAD tools (digital back end) $ 1 M shared

22 NREs - Prototyping Mask cost Test fixture cost Package tooling Values: Mask set for 130 nm about $500-1000 Test fixture $ 1000-50.000

23 Recurring costs Cost of single IC after the development phase R total =R process +R package +R test R process =W/(NxY w xY pa ) W = wafer cost (500-3000 $) N=Number die Y w =Die yield (70-90 %) =Packaging yield (95-99%)

24 Fixed costs Data sheets Application notes Marketing and commercial costs

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