2 MotivationThe psychological forces acting on an individual that determine:Direction—possible behaviors the individual could engage inEffort—how hard the individual will workPersistence—whether the individual will keep trying or give upExplains why people behave the way they do in organizations
4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Self-actualizationRealize one’sfull potentialUse abilitiesto the fullestEsteemFeel goodabout oneselfPromotionsand recognitionBelongingnessSocialinteraction, loveInterpersonalrelations, partiesSafetySecurity, stabilityJob security,health insurancePhysiologicalFood, water,shelterBasic pay levelto buy itemsNeedsDescriptionExamplesLower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed.Highest-level needsLowest-level needs
5 Adequate pay for necessities Alderfer’s ERG TheoryAfter lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. Whenunable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised.GrowthSelf-development,creative workContinuallyimprove skillsRelatednessInterpersonalrelations, feelingsGood relations,accurate feedbackExistenceFood, water,clothing, and shelterAdequate pay for necessitiesNeedsDescriptionExamplesHighest-level needsLowest-level needs
6 McClelland’s Need for Power, Affiliation, & Achievement Need to perform challenging tasks wellPowerDesire to control or influence othersAffiliationConcern for good interpersonal relations & being liked
7 Herzberg’s Motivator - Hygeine MotivatorsFactors that can lead to job satisfaction & motivationIntrinsic FactorsEnjoying the work, challenges, autonomy, accomplishment, developmental opportunitiesHygeine FactorsFactors that cause dissatisfactionExtrinsic FactorsWorking conditions, pay, job security, benefits
8 Equity TheoryPerceived fairness of work outcomes relative to work inputsPeople compare their input/output ratio with a referent other
9 Equity TheoryEquity occurs when your input/output ratio equals the referent other’s ratioPeople are motivated to keep EquityKeep inputs consistent when outputs are consistentIncrease inputs if you want outputs increased
10 Equity TheoryInequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent.Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent.Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent.
11 Equity TheoryRestoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equityUnderpayment inequityDecrease inputs, Increase outputsOverpayment inequityIncrease inputs, Decrease outputs
12 Expectancy TheoryExpectancy—the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performanceInstrumentality—the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomesValence—the desirability of an outcome
14 Expectancy Theory Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence If one of the values is low, motivation will be low.Workers do not believe they can perform well.Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked.Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance.
15 Goal-Setting Theory Goals motivate behavior when they are: Specific – help people focus their attention in the right directionDifficult – challenges the individual to work hard; not too difficult.Give Feedback – allows the individual to know how effective their behaviors are
16 Job Design Job Enlargement Increasing the number of tasks for a given job to reduce boredom.Job EnrichmentIncreasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a jobBoth should lead to employees showing initiative