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Chapter 8 Motivation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Motivation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Motivation

2 Motivation The psychological forces acting on an individual that determine: Direction—possible behaviors the individual could engage in Effort—how hard the individual will work Persistence—whether the individual will keep trying or give up Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations

3 Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy
Self- Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological

4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Self- actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Needs Description Examples Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs

5 Adequate pay for necessities
Alderfer’s ERG Theory After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. Growth Self-development, creative work Continually improve skills Relatedness Interpersonal relations, feelings Good relations, accurate feedback Existence Food, water, clothing, and shelter Adequate pay for necessities Needs Description Examples Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs

6 McClelland’s Need for Power, Affiliation, & Achievement
Need to perform challenging tasks well Power Desire to control or influence others Affiliation Concern for good interpersonal relations & being liked

7 Herzberg’s Motivator - Hygeine
Motivators Factors that can lead to job satisfaction & motivation Intrinsic Factors Enjoying the work, challenges, autonomy, accomplishment, developmental opportunities Hygeine Factors Factors that cause dissatisfaction Extrinsic Factors Working conditions, pay, job security, benefits

8 Equity Theory Perceived fairness of work outcomes relative to work inputs People compare their input/output ratio with a referent other

9 Equity Theory Equity occurs when your input/output ratio equals the referent other’s ratio People are motivated to keep Equity Keep inputs consistent when outputs are consistent Increase inputs if you want outputs increased

10 Equity Theory Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent.

11 Equity Theory Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity Underpayment inequity Decrease inputs, Increase outputs Overpayment inequity Increase inputs, Decrease outputs

12 Expectancy Theory Expectancy—the belief that effort (input) will result in a certain level of performance Instrumentality—the belief that performance results in the attainment of outcomes Valence—the desirability of an outcome


14 Expectancy Theory Motivation = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence
If one of the values is low, motivation will be low. Workers do not believe they can perform well. Workers do not believe that performance and rewards are closely linked. Workers do not value the rewards offered for performance.

15 Goal-Setting Theory Goals motivate behavior when they are:
Specific – help people focus their attention in the right direction Difficult – challenges the individual to work hard; not too difficult. Give Feedback – allows the individual to know how effective their behaviors are

16 Job Design Job Enlargement
Increasing the number of tasks for a given job to reduce boredom. Job Enrichment Increasing the degree of responsibility a worker has over a job Both should lead to employees showing initiative

17 Job Characteristics Model

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