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Chapter 15 NATURE AND NURTURE
You Started as One Cell: Stem cells
Nature/Nurture Genetics is potential (Nature) Environment acts on this potential (Nurture) Forks in the road of Development
Preparing To Live On You Own: The HPA Axis Breathing Gluconeogenesis Epigenetics and development (Fetal programming Thrifty metabolism
Postnatal Development Organization of the nervous system Your brain is learning how to control your body Growth Puberty
Genetics Dominant Recessive Co-dominant Also X-linked Inherited probabilities Diabetes Heart disease cancer
Aging Hayflick Limit Other –Oxidative stress –Accumulated damage –Calorie restriction???
Healthcare: Manipulating Human Function Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment Medicine is becoming Drugs. Individualized medicine?
How Drugs are Prescribed
Drugs Alter relationships between molecules Alter balance Do not create anything new
Modes of Administration Topical (patch) Subcutaneous Oral Intra-peritoneal (I.P) Intra-muscular (I.M) Intra-venous (I.V)
The Body Acts on Drugs Can Change the drug into another drug Can detoxify the drug
Timing is important When a drug is taken is important –Resistance –Tolerance /dependence –etc
Removal of Drugs Liver Kidney Digestive system
Drug Development Natural compounds Synthetic compounds Screening Goal: safe and effective
Preclinical Chemical Characterization Cell culture Several Animal species –LD 50 How much of the drug kills one-half of the animals –distribution
Clinical Phase I Requires FDA approval Healthy volunteers Double blind: drug or placebo Side effects and toxicities
Clinical Phase II Requires FDA approval Healthy volunteers (safety) Some sick people (effective) Longer term treatment
Clinical Phase III Requires FDA approval Large scale clinical with patients Define “Safe” and “Effective” Risk vs Benefit
Clinical Phase IV Requires FDA approval On probation On the market Being tested on the public
The Drug Discovery Process
Drug design and testing,. Drug Names Chemical name- describes its molecular structure and distinguishes it from other drugs.
Drug Development Marilyn Lockyer, RN, BSc, CCRP Senior Clinical Research Coordinator King Faisal Heart Institute Marilyn Lockyer, RN, BSc, CCRP Senior.
Option D1 Pharmaceutical Products. Generally a drug or medicine is any chemical (natural or man made), which does one or more of the following: Alters.
Phase I metabolism may either detoxify or toxify. Phase I reactions produce a more polar molecule that is easier to eliminate. Phase I reactions can sometimes.
Modified Megestrol The Clinical Trials by : Carolina R. Akib
Project IMPACT IMPACT National Medical Association What African Americans Should Know About Clinical Trials You’ve Got the Power!
Clinical Trials Medical Interventions
KNR 365 Pharmacology. Pharmacology Defined The study of drugs, their sources, their nature, and their properties. Pharmacology is the study of the body's.
Translational Medicine Turning Basic Research into Medicines and Treatments.
The Application of the Scientific Method: Preclinical Trials Copyright PEER.tamu.edu.
Health Economics & Policy 3 rd Edition James W. Henderson Chapter 13 Technology in Medicine.
INVESTIGATIONAL DRUG SERVICES IN THE HOSPITAL Sheree Miller, Pharm.D. University of Washington Medical Center
Stages of drug development
Drug development Recognise the use of plants as sources of medicines. Describe the drug development process. Compare historic drug testing with contemporary.
How and Why Drugs Work Chapter 5
Drug Testing GRADE C Describe the main steps in testing a new drug.
Drugs and Medicines Version
Adapted from L. Scheffler Lincoln High School
Unit 5 – Public Health Chronic Diseases
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