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Overhead 1 Literacy: Making the Second Language Connection.

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1 Overhead 1 Literacy: Making the Second Language Connection

2 Overhead 2 ESL/ELD Enrolment in HPEDSB Ministry Report for Elementary 2001-2002:25 2002-2003:36 2003-2004:36, plus 10 after Oct. 31 2004-2005:50+ (projected) Ministry Report does not include Canadian-born ESL students does not include International Student Program

3 Overhead 3 ESL/ELD Elementary Student Support in HPEDSB Withdrawal and Monitoring by 2 part-time itinerant teachers 2001-2002:14 (25 on report) 2002-2003:23 (36 on report) 2003-2004:46 (36 + 10 after Oct. 31) 2004-2005:50+ (projected) 17 Elementary Schools with ESL students (3 of these sites also host ISP students) 2 additional elementary schools with ISP students 20 schools with ESL/ELD programming needs

4 English As a Second Language and English Literacy Development A Resource Guide Orientation/Training Materials Ministry of Education The Ontario Curriculum Grades 1-8 2001

5 Overhead 5 Part 1 --- Program Considerations The three parts of the document are… (p. 1-3) Part 1. ESL/ELD Program Considerations Part 2. Stages of Language Acquisition Part 3. Adapted Sample Units The ESL/ELD program at the elementary level is… (p. 6) a support or intervention program for English as a Second Language and English Literacy Development

6 Overhead 6 An ESL student… enters an Ontario school with little or no previous knowledge of English but has received educational experiences in his/her own country. or may be Canadian-born but have limited proficiency in standard Canadian English (p. 6)

7 Overhead 7 An ELD student… has had limited access to schooling may come from a country in which English is not spoken, or may come from a country in which a variety of English is in common use; and, has not had opportunities to develop age- appropriate literacy skills in his/her first language. (p. 6 and 7)

8 Overhead 8 The Four Stages in the Acculturation Process initial enthusiasm culture shock recovery integration (p. 8)

9 Overhead 9 For an ESL/ELD student to acquire –social English takes… 1-2 years –academic English takes… 5-7 years (p. 11)

10 Overhead 10 Years to Achieve Native-Like English Proficiency Adapted from “Teaching to Diversity”, Mary Meyers,  1993; designed by P. Steinhouse, 1997 Optional

11 Overhead 11 Factors Influencing Second- Language Acquisition age on arrival effects of possible personal trauma length of time in Canada stage of acculturation previous educational experience level of first-language literacy previous exposure to English language(s) spoken in the home presence of learning exceptionalities (p. 7)

12 Overhead 12 During the Initial Reception Phase… School staff should: collect background information about the student and take steps to establish open and positive communication with the home (p. 13)

13 Overhead 13 Identify a school reception team. Provide essential orientation information.Provide essential orientation information. Establish communication with the home.Establish communication with the home. Collect background information.Collect background information Reception and Orientation

14 Overhead 14 The Role of the Parents When parents continue to support the development of the first language, the child’s underlying knowledge, conceptual base, and language ability are improved. (p.20)

15 Overhead 15 Diagnostic Assessment May include: –first-language assessment; –an ESL/ELD assessment; and –a mathematics assessment Informally gathered over several weeks

16 Overhead 16 Report Cards for ESL/ELD Students ESL/ELD students should be given time to develop their skills in English before their achievement is assessed by the criteria used for other students. In some cases, it may be appropriate to avoid giving a mark in a particular subject, or even in all subjects, on the report card. Use the space to make clear that insufficient evidence of achievement is available at that time and write anecdotal comments about the student’s progress. (p. 23)

17 Overhead 17 The ESL or ELD Box on the Report Card Checking the ESL or ESD box indicates that accommodations and/or modifications of curriculum expectations are in place for that student. When expectations have been modified, the following statement must be included on the report card… The (grade/mark) for (strand/subject) is based on achievement of the expectations in the (ESL or ELD) program, which vary from the Grade ___ expectations (p. 22) Ministry of Education, Ontario, Guide to the Provincial Report Card, Grades 1-8 (Toronto: Ministry of Education, Ontario, 1998), p. 8

18 Overhead 18 Report Card Implications Expectations modified, accommodations made: ESL or ELD box checked and Rider Statement included, mark on modified expectations Expectations NOT modified, accommodations made: ESL or ELD box checked, mark is class mark no accommodation made: ESL or ELD box not checked, mark is class mark

19 Overhead 19 Part 2 --- Stages of Second Language Acquisition for ESL Students Four Stages Skill Areas of: –Listening, –Speaking, –Reading, –Writing, and –Orientation Grades 1-3, Grades 4-6, Grades 7-8

20 Overhead 20 Stages of Second Language Acquisition and Literacy Development for ELD Students Four Stages Skill Areas of: –Oral Expression and Language Knowledge, –Reading, –Writing, and –Orientation Grades 1-3, Grades 4-6, Grades 7-8

21 Overhead 21 Stages of Second-Language Acquisition Stage 1: Survival/Beginning English Stage 2: English in Familiar and Supported Contexts Stage 3: English with Some Independence and Inaccuracies Stage 4: Independent and Accurate English

22 Overhead 22 Programming basis for ESL/ELD program planning to establish identification of expectations for ESL/ELD learners guide for development of Ontario Curriculum adaptations basis for collaboration between ESL/ELD and classroom teachers Tracking map of student progress basis for observation Assessment/Evaluation initial assessment tool conference/ team resource evaluation of progress development of report card comments reporting to parents student self-evaluation

23 Overhead 23 Part 3 Sample Adaptations and Modifications for Selected Teaching Units

24 Overhead 24 outlines OC expectations and modified expectations discusses specific literacy and numeracy needs of ELD students Expectations ELD Considerations how to use descriptors to adapt curriculum ESL/ELD Descriptors Contents and/or PurposeSection An Overview of Part 3

25 Overhead 25 multifaceted task used to assess unit expectations identifies basic knowledge and skills needed to perform unit tasks provide criteria for assessing modified expectations Culminating Task Prior Knowledge & Skills Assessment Rubrics Contents and/or PurposeSection

26 Overhead 26 describe diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment strategies for each unit designed to meet the needs of ESL/ELD students in a particular unit Assessment & Evaluation Strategies Teaching Strategies Contents and/or PurposeSection

27 Overhead 27 Steps for Program Adaptation Determine student’s ESL/ELD stage in each language strand and stage in orientation Adapt program in curriculum areas, where needed, based on stage of proficiency Evaluation based on: – modified expectations, or – grade expectations Modifications Adjustments to expectations and/or performance criteria (generally for stages 1 and 2) Accommodations Strategies used to help student meet the expectations (generally for stages 1 to 4)

28 Overhead 28 Example 1: Expectations and ESL Modified Expectations Grade 5 Science and Technology: Earth and Space Systems – Weather demonstrate understanding of the difference between climate and weather demonstrate an understanding of selected key vocabulary related to weather and climate demonstrate an understanding of the major climatic factors and patterns associated with weather Modified Expectations for Stage 2 ESL Students Modified Expectations for Stage 1 ESL Students Science Expectations

29 Overhead 29 Example 1: Assessment Rubric for ESL Stage 1 Grade 5 Science & Technology: Earth & Space Systems - Weather independently examines how weather forecasts influence people’s decisions about their homes begins to independently examine how weather forecasts influence people’s decisions about their homes with some assistance examines how weather forecasts influence people’s decisions about their homes with much assistance examines how weather forecasts influence people’s decisions about their homes demonstrates understanding of all (or almost all) selected key vocabulary related to weather and climate demonstrates understanding of most selected key vocabulary related to weather and climate demonstrates some understanding of selected key vocabulary related to weather and climate demonstrates minimal understanding of selected key vocabulary related to weather and climate Knowledge level 4level 3level 2level 1 Category

30 Overhead 30 Modifying Expectations ESL/ELD students may need 5-7 years to understand academic language and express complex and abstract concepts adjust the language requirements to suit the students’ age and stage of English language acquisition set expectations that are challenging and attainable

31 Overhead 31 ESL/ELD Students in FSL It is expected that ESL/ELD students will participate in the French as a second language (FSL) program along with their grade-level peers. Core French curriculum expectations may need to be modified according to the age, ability and/or background of individual students.

32 Overhead 32 J’ai le français au coeur…

33 Overhead 33 The Benefits of Second Language Learning Research confirms that knowledge of a second language strengthens first-language skills, and that the ability to speak two or more languages generally enhances problem-solving and reasoning skills, [and] the capacity for creative thinking…(The Ontario Curriculum French as a Second Language: Core French Grades 4 – 8, 1998)

34 Overhead 34 …the development of competence in two or more languages can result in higher levels of metalinguistic awareness. These facilitate the acquisition of language by exploiting the cognitive mechanisms underlying these processes of transfer and enhancement. (Jessner, 1999)

35 Overhead 35 …research suggests that bilingualism enhances children’s understanding of how language itself works and their ability to manipulate language in the service of thinking and problem- solving. (Cummins, 1990)

36 Overhead 36 Successful language learners transfer their knowledge about language from one language to another. (Simpson Norris International, 2001)

37 Overhead 37 Successful language learners often use strategies in an orchestrated fashion. For example, L2 writing, like L1 writing, benefits from learning strategies of planning, self- monitoring, deduction, substitution. (Oxford, 1994)

38 Overhead 38 Les stratégies d’instruction pour la lecture

39 Overhead 39 Les activités pour les stratégies d’instruction de la lecture Établir des liens --- une toile des mots Visualiser --- des notes visualisées Questionner --- la grande question Inférer --- une note en deux colonnes Déterminer l’importance --- le problème et des solutions Synthétiser --- un diagramme de l’histoire

40 Overhead 40 We have teaching in our hearts…

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