2 Introduction: Training for Competitive Advantage 1ChapterIntroduction: Training for Competitive Advantage
3 Introduction Training is intended to improve organization. Training practices are intended to help organizations gain a competitive advantage in their markets.Competitive advantage is ability to maintain and gain market share in industry
4 What is training?Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies.The goal of training is for employees tomaster the knowledge, skill, and abilities and other qualifications emphasized in training programs, andapply them to their day-to-day activities
5 What is learning?Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in cognition resulting from experience and directly influencing behavior.Knowledge – informationSkills – general capacities to perform tasks; developed through experienceAbilities – general capacities to perform tasks developed over time as the result of heredity and experienceOther qualifications
6 What is a learning organization? Learning organization consists of employees who are always learning and improving their KSAOsContinuous learning is a condition in which employees constantly expand their capabilitiesInformation mapsTechnology
7 What is development?Employee development occurs when employees learn KSAOs not necessarily applicable to their current job but important in personal or career growth.Organizational development is a set of processes designed to improve the ability of an organization to adopt its internal characteristics to the demands of its environment while meeting the needs of its members through planned interventions
8 Training Design Process Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for TrainingCreating a Learning EnvironmentConducting Needs AssessmentDeveloping an Evaluation PlanEnsuring Transfer of TrainingMonitor and Evaluate the ProgramSelect Training MethodSee Figure 1-1 on page 6 for details
9 Assumptions of Training Design Approaches Training design is effective only if it helps employees reach instructional or training goals and objectives.Measurable learning objectives should be identified before training.Evaluation plays an important part in planning and choosing a training method, monitoring the training program, and suggesting changes to the training design process.
10 Forces Influencing the Workplace and Training GlobalizationNeed for leadershipIncreased value placed on knowledgeAttracting and winning talentQuality emphasisChanging demographics and diversity of the work forceNew technologyHigh-performance model of work systemsSee Table 1-1 on page 8 for details
11 The Global ChallengeCross-cultural training prepares employees and their families for overseas assignments and for returnsForeign workers
12 The Quality ChallengeQuality is determined by the user and is anything that the user is willing to give up something of value in order to obtainMalcolm Baldrige Quality AwardISO 9000Six SigmaTotal Quality Management
13 Core Values of Total Quality Management Methods and processes are designed to meet the needs of internal and external customers.Every employee in the company receives training in quality.Quality is designed into a product or service so that errors are prevented from occurring, rather than being detected and corrected.
14 Core Values of TQM (continued) The company promotes cooperation with vendors, suppliers, and customers to improve quality and hold down costs.Managers measure progress with feedback based on data.
15 The Social ChallengeCommunicating effectively with employees from a wide variety of backgrounds.Coaching and developing employees of different ages, educational backgrounds, ethnicities, physical abilities, and races.Providing performance feedback that is free of values and stereotypes based on gender, ethnicity, or physical handicap.Creating a work environment that allows employees of all backgrounds to be innovative.
16 How Managing Cultural Diversity Can Provide Competitive Advantage 1. Cost argumentAs organizations become more diverse, the cost of a poor job in integrating workers will increase.Those who handle this well will thus create cost advantages over those who don’t.2. Resource-acquisition argumentCompanies develop reputations on favorability as prospective employers for women and minorities.Those with the best reputations for managing diversity will be the most attractive employers for women and minority groups.An important edge in a tight labor market.3. Marketing argumentThe insight and cultural sensitivity that members with roots in other countries bring to the marketing effort should improve these efforts in important ways.See Table 1-3 on page 19 for details
17 How Managing Cultural Diversity Can Provide Competitive Advantage (continued) 4. Creativity argumentDiversity of perspectives and less emphasis on conformity to norms of the past should improve the level of creativity.5. Problem-solving argumentHeterogeneity in decisions and problem-solving groups potentially produces better decisions through a wider range of perspectives and more through critical analysis of issues.6. System flexibility argumentAn implication of the multicultural model for managing diversity is that the system will become less determinant, less standardized, and therefore more fluid.The increased fluidity should create greater flexibility to react to environmental changes (i.e., reactions should be faster and cost less).See Table 1-3 on page 19 for details
18 Employees choose or select new employees or team members. Use of new technology and work design needs to be supported by specific HRM practices:Employees choose or select new employees or team members.Employees receive formal performance feedback and are involved in the performance improvement process.Ongoing training is emphasized and rewarded.Rewards and compensation are linked to company performance.
19 Use of new technology and work design needs to be supported by specific HRM practices: (continued) Equipment and work processes encourage maximum flexibility and interaction between employees.Employees participate in planning changes in equipment, layout, and work methods.Employees understand how their jobs contribute to the finished product or service.
20 Training Investment Leaders U.S. employers spend approximately $59 billion on formal training per yearApproximately 1 to 2 percent of their payrollTraining Investment Leaders invest 3 to 5 percent of payroll in trainingThey train almost all eligible employeesEmployees spend twice as much time training as those in Benchmark firmsThey make a larger investment in learning technologies.
21 Roles and Competencies of Trainers Analysis/Assessment RoleIndustry understanding; computer competence; data analysis skill; research skillDevelopment RoleUnderstanding of adult learning; skills in feedback; writing, electronic systems, and preparing objectivesStrategic RoleCareer development theory; business understanding; delegation skills; training and development theory; computer competenceInstructor/Facilitator RoleAdult learning principles; skills related to coaching, feedback, electronic systems, and group processesAdministrator RoleComputer competence; skills in selecting and identifying facilities; cost-benefit analysis; project management; records managementSee Table 1-6 on page 28 for details