What separates humans from animals? What separates advanced societies from primitive societies? What separates advanced cognition from basic cognition?
Published byModified over 6 years ago
Presentation on theme: "What separates humans from animals? What separates advanced societies from primitive societies? What separates advanced cognition from basic cognition?"— Presentation transcript:
What separates humans from animals? What separates advanced societies from primitive societies? What separates advanced cognition from basic cognition? That is, what makes us smart?
Vygotsky awakes our eyes to the powerful role of culture and community in learning. His theory presents the radical idea that our very thought and intelligence is really not our own. It’s the product of history and culture.
Mediated Activity (Help us do mental work-- So I call them mental tools) (Help us do physical work) Signs Tools
Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts Cultures create mental tools which transform our mental work just like physical tools transform our physical work.
Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts As we internalize these tools we become smarter (i.e., we develop higher psychological processes). –Language is the mother of all mental tools. Piaget’s vs. Vygotsky’s views on the relationship between thought and language.Piaget’s vs. Vygotsky’s views on the relationship between thought and language.
Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts We internalize these tools as we work in our Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD).
ZPD Tasks I cannot do even with help Tasks I can do only with help Tasks I can do all by myself
Use abstract language Use language Babble ZPD What mental tool has been internalized?
Vygotsky’s Basic Concepts Learning (internalization of tools) occurs most naturally and efficiently when we participate in authentic, social activities.
Vygotsky in a Nutshell The mental tools of our culture are what make us smart. We acquire these mental tools best through meaningful participation in authentic, social activities. The ZPD describes how we learn from others as we participate in social activity. Overall, learning is a process of enculturation. “Human learning presupposes a specific social nature and a process by which children grow into the intellectual life of those around them” (Vygotsky, Mind in Society, p. 88)
Learning as a process of Enculturation Think about a group or clique you were a part of in high school. What were some of the defining qualities of this group? –What “look” did you need to have? –How did you need to talk? –What unique values did the group have? –What activities did you engage in? How did you learn to be a part of this group and adopt these qualities?
Individual and Social Constructivism Individual: individuals construct meaning out of what they already know and through their interactions with the environment. Social: Groups or cultures construct meaning together out of what the group or culture already knows and experiences. –Vygotsky’s extension: Individuals construct meaning through their interaction with others (i.e., they internalize the meaning constructed by the group or culture as they become enculturated).
Instructional Models Based on Vygotsky and Social Constructivism Cognitive Apprenticeship model –Modeling –Scaffolding and Fading Providing support so that students can complete some task they couldn’t do alone. Then gradually removing the support as students gain competence. In other words, help student progress through their ZPD. –Authentic Activity Real world Complex Meaningful Social
Instructional Models Based on Vygotsky and Social Constructivism Examples of the Cognitive Apprenticeship model: –Reciprocal Teaching –Immersion approach in foreign language instruction. –Science apprenticeships
How would the teacher education program be different if it were based on an apprenticeship model (i.e., if the whole thing was like an extended student teaching assignment)? What would be the advantages/disadvantages?
Instructional Models Based on Vygotsky and Social Constructivism Community of Learners –Joint problem solving –Student directed inquiry –Dialogue –Everyone not learning the same things –Note: This is a collaborative form of problem-based learning. Hence, it fits with both individual and social constructivism.
Instructional Models Based on Vygotsky and Social Constructivism Examples of the Community of Learners model: –Our motivation project. –Deborah Ball’s constructivist math instruction.
Diversity What are some of the educational implications of Vygotsky’s belief that our thought and intelligence comes from our society and culture (through the internalization of culturally constructed mental tools)?
Some implications Must take the sociocultural context into account: –Cultural norms, attitudes, beliefs –Cultural knowledge bases –Cultural forms of language use –Power and politics Must be aware of cultural mismatch (mental tools of home culture don’t match up with mental tools required in school). –Example: types of questions used at home vs. school (Brice-Heath). –Example: use of “talk-story” in Native Hawaiian culture.
[Back to Vygotsky’s basic concepts[Back to Vygotsky’s basic concepts.] Note: Formal thought is internalized language; language comes from society; hence the mind is a product of society.
Discussion Questions from the Fringe Karl Marx said that religion is the opium of the masses. More recently, Minnesota governor and ex-pro wrestler Jesse Ventura said that religion is for the weak minded. Would Vygotsky agree? What about Piaget?