University of Zadar Danica Škara, PhD Doctoral studies: learning outcomes.
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University of Zadar Danica Škara, PhD firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Doctoral studies: learning outcomes
Bologna reform - since Berlin 2003, doctoral studies are considered as the third cycle in the degree structure People going through doctoral studies are referred to in various ways: doctoral students, PhDs early stage researchers
Doctoral studies Around Europe there are many different traditions regarding the way the third cycle has been organised up to now. Individual oriented doctoral studies: it is important that there is some form of “curriculum” or plan of work agreed between the doctoral student and the supervisor(s). A structured programme organised within research groups with two phases: a taught phase (mandatory and voluntary courses or modules) and a research phase.” Doctoral schools (network of doctoral schools)
Identification of social needs Consultation at EU level Employers and stakeholders Academic community Translation into curricula Approaches to teaching and learning Translatioin into education units and activities Assessment and evaluation Quality assuarance Translation into desired learning outcomes: Generic competences Subject related comp. Professional bodies Location of resources Academic resources Oraganisation resources strategic alliances Financial resources
Learning outcomes and competences Learning outcomes are sets of competences, expressing what the student will know, understand or be able to do after completion of a process of learning. LO have applications in many fields: Programmes, courses Mission statement of the Faculty/university Nationally for qualification framework, quality assuarance, internationally for wider recognition and transparency purposes Learning outcomes specify the requirements for award of credit.
LEARNING OUTCOMES (ESIB) The Dublin descriptors, and the Tuning project define the third cycle through a number of important goals. Two of these desired outcomes are that students “have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field;” and “can be expected to be able to promote, within academic and professional contexts, technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society.”
The research component is an intrinsic part of doctoral studies. a)basic b)applied research, Graduates of doctoral studies should be prepared for both an academic career and to work outside HEIs. doctoral studies should provide opportunities for interdisciplinary research
Main descriptors Main division of descriptors: -Knowledge - breadth and depth Skills - language and communication skills Competences - cognitive, professional and ethical
Generic skills The importance of transferable and generic skills need to be stressed by the HEIs Seven major areas identified: Research Skills and Techniques Research Environment Research Management Personal Effectiveness Communication skills Networking and teamworking Career management
ECTS & learning outcomes ESIB cit: ECTS credits should be allocated for the taught parts of the doctoral programmes. This will facilitate the mobility of the doctoral students. ECTS should also be given to the thesis part of the doctoral programme. Also in the thesis work it is possible to define learning outcomes and count workload to allocate ECTS credits.
By saying that it is impossible to define learning outcomes and count workload for parts of the doctoral programme the whole concept of ECTS credits becomes undermined. ESIB believes that the problems concerning proper allocation of ECTS credits to the research part of the programmes will remain for a transitional period until HEI staff has learned how to properly allocate credits.
Doctoral students-competences Qualifications that signify completion of the third cycle are awarded to students who: Have demonstrated a systematic understanding of a field of study and mastery of the skills and methods of research associated with that field. Are capable of critical analysis, evaluation and synthesis of new and complex ideas Can comunicate with their peers, the larger academic community and with society Can be expected to promote technological, social or cultural advancement in a knowledge based society
CROATIA-doctorate studies University of Zagreb (2008) 68 doctoral programmes (38 reformed) Legal framework Instructions (How to make/organize doctoral programes) Rector’s conference (February, 8, 2005) Core and elective courses should be expressed in ECTS, research and other activities are not necessarily defined with the ECTS.
Doctoral programme: Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing- University of Zagreb Structured programme based on the ECTS. Full time > 3 years, Part time>6 years Courses, exams = 20% - 30% ECTS Research = 70% - 80% ECTS (published works, dissertation, etc.)
Present situation (Univertsity of Zadar) 8 doctorate programmes (one reformed) Present doctoral students can be divided into several groups: 1.Those students who finished B.A. (4 years) + M.A. (2 years) 2.Those students who finished (B.A. (4 years) who are legally recognized as equal to new masters (Mag. struke) 3.Students who follow newly reformed doctoral programmes based on the Bologna scheme (3+2+3)
General remarks on doctoral studies (University of Zadar) Learning outcomes are not clearly defined Generic skills are not included, only subject related competences, knowledge ECTS should be revised Learning outcomes are substituted for the type of a job students are trained for No cooparation, no database for potential mentors Staff overloaded
Issues to be regarded the lack of transparent information regarding fee funding, accommodation, health insuarance, living costs in a particular city the lack of courses taught in foreign languages, e.g. English Because of the lack of funding strategy regarding doctoral studies on the national and university level, promoted equality of access is violated referring to the low income students (social disadvantage) It also affects cultural diversity (some students study in their home town despite their preferences) The lack of mobility within Croatia The lack of mobility on the international level The lack of joint-programmes, international students and teachers Teachers are overloaded in first two cycles; it affects doctoral students and their learning outcomes
Suggestions for further actions: Structured programmes-a meaningful reference framework Precisely defined learning outcomes and competences acquired at doctoral level Promote real transparency by using ECTS Remove barriers for international cooperation and joint degrees Remove remaining barriers for academic and professional recognition and mobility in the European Area Introduce doctoral schools as efficient means to enrich the choice of mentors Mutual trust??