IM Lab NCCU 1 Introduction of SCORM: Sharable Content Object Reference Model Hao-Chuan Wang Computer Science Department National Chengchi University 2003.
Published byModified over 6 years ago
Presentation on theme: "IM Lab NCCU 1 Introduction of SCORM: Sharable Content Object Reference Model Hao-Chuan Wang Computer Science Department National Chengchi University 2003."— Presentation transcript:
IM Lab NCCU 1 Introduction of SCORM: Sharable Content Object Reference Model Hao-Chuan Wang Computer Science Department National Chengchi University 2003 May
IM Lab NCCU 2 Outline Introduction SCORM Overview SCORM Content Aggregation Model Content Model Metadata Content Packaging Run-Time Environment Demo
IM Lab NCCU 3 Introduction Computers in Education: developed over 30 years. –early years: CAI –with the impact of AI and cognitive science: Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) –Multimedia and internet: web-based learning A new term today: e-Learning What’s the next step of learning technology?
IM Lab NCCU 4 Introduction Most web-based learning systems today: –Proprietary format –Contents are not exchangeable and sharable –Expensive costs for maintenance: ex. Updating and extending Standard reference model is needed. –Many e-Learning specifications are proposed. –SCORM: unifying these specs.
IM Lab NCCU 5 SCORM Overview Sharable Content Object Reference Model Defines a Web-based learning “ Content Aggregation Model “ and “ Run-Time Environment “ for learning objects. A model that references a set of interrelated technical specifications and guidelines designed to meet DoD’s requirements for Web-based learning content.
IM Lab NCCU 6 Reference Model Criteria Durable –no modification required as versions of system software change. Interoperable –operate across a wide variety of hardware, operating systems and Web browsers. Accessible –can be indexed and found as needed. Reusable – can be modified and used by many different development tools.
IM Lab NCCU 7 SCORM: A Collection of Specs. Metadata Dictionary (from IEEE) Content Packaging (from IMS) Meta-data XML Binding and best Practice (from IMS) Launch, Communication API (from AICC) Data Model (from AICC) Content Structure (derived from AICC) BOOK 3: The SCORM Runtime Environment BOOK 1: The SCORM Overview BOOK 2: The SCORM Content Aggregation Model From SCORM 1.2 Overview, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org Others: Applications, Conformance…etc.
IM Lab NCCU 8 Footnotes of overview Back to the viewpoint of practice: –SCORM separate contents from learning platform. –Contents are packaged following the spec. of Content Aggregation Model –How contents communicate with Learning Management System (LMS) are specified in the spec. of Runtime Environment
IM Lab NCCU 9 SCORM Content Aggregation Model The Content Aggregation Model spec. consists of three components: Content Model : basic learning objects Meta-data : mechanism for describing instances Content Packaging : the structure and behavior
IM Lab NCCU 10 Content Model Defines how lower-level sharable, reusable learning resources are aggregated to compose higher-level units of instruction. Learning resources are aggregated into: –Assets –Sharable Content Objects (SCO) –Content Aggregation
IM Lab NCCU 11 Learning Objects Objects could be “learned” completely and independently. A picture could be viewed, but may not be learned. (without annotations) A web page could be used for learning, but user may only get partial concepts of that topic. (like a section of a book) A learning objects aggregated these elements delivers knowledge about that topic completely. (like a chapter or even a complete book)
IM Lab NCCU 12 Assets Learning content in its most basic form is composed of Assets. –Assets could be representation of types of media. Ex. image, text, video clip. Asset metadata – allow for search and discovery within online repositories, thereby enhancing opportunities for reuse. The mechanism for binding Assets to Asset meta- data is the Content Package.
IM Lab NCCU 13 Example of Assets From SCORM 1.2 CAM, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org
IM Lab NCCU 14 SCO A collection of one or more Assets that utilizes the SCORM Run-Time Environment to communicate with Learning Management System (LMS). A SCO represents the lowest level of granularity learning resources that can be tracked by an LMS.
IM Lab NCCU 15 SCO (cont.) Reusability: –A SCO by itself should be independent of learning context. –For example, a SCO could be reused in different learning experiences to fulfill different learning objects.
IM Lab NCCU 16 Example of SCO From SCORM 1.2 CAM, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org Communication with Runtime Env.
IM Lab NCCU 17 Content Aggregation The Content Aggregation defines the content structure. A map (content structure) that can be used to aggregate learning resources into a unit of instruction.
IM Lab NCCU 18 Example of Content Aggregation From SCORM 1.2 CAM, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org
IM Lab NCCU 19 Meta-data The purpose of meta-data is to provide a common nomenclature enabling learning resources to described in a common way. Learning resources described with meta-data can be systematically searched and retrieved. Assets, SCO, Content Aggregation all use the same meta-data model.
IM Lab NCCU 20 Categories of Meta-data Elements Nine main categories and totally about 80 tags. 1.General 2.Lifecycle 3.Meta-metadata 4.Technical 5.Educational 6.Rights 7.Relation 8.Annotation 9.Classification
IM Lab NCCU 21 Symbol Table SymbolMeaning This symbol denotes that the element has one or more child elements. This symbol denotes that the element contains data. This text denotes the XML Schema Definition (XSD) type assigned to the element. (no symbol) When no multiplicity symbol is present, this denotes that the element may exist one and only one time. + The plus sign denotes that the element may occur one or more times within its parent element. ? The question mark denotes that the element may occur zero or one time within its parent element. * The asterisk denotes that the element may occur zero to many times within its parent element.
IM Lab NCCU 22 Example of Categories: General The General category groups the general information that describes the resource as a whole.
IM Lab NCCU 23 Example of Categories: Technical The Technical category groups the technical requirements and characteristics of the resource.
IM Lab NCCU 24 Example of Categories: Educational The Educational category groups the educational and pedagogic characteristics of the resource.
IM Lab NCCU 25 Examples of Meta-data around.jpg, 6 of 9 meta-data categories are used.
IM Lab NCCU 26 Content Packaging A standardized way to exchange digital learning resources between different systems ( LMS ) or tools. Define the structure ( or organization ) and the intended behavior of a collection of learning resources. –A manifest file : list all of the resources or assets included in the package, the organization of the SCOs, the metadata for the package and the SCOs –All the actual SCO files
IM Lab NCCU 29 Example of Manifest File Each learning object is packaged with “imsmanifest.xml”
IM Lab NCCU 30 Run-Time Environment A common way to start learning resources, a common mechanism for learning resources to communicate with an LMS. The responsibility of the LMS : to determine which learning resource is to be launched. The responsibility of the SCO ： to find the API Adapter.
IM Lab NCCU 31 Run-Time Environment (cont.) From SCORM 1.2 RTE, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org
IM Lab NCCU 32 API for Communication A set of predefined functions: allows the SCO to communicate with the LMS. All communication between the API Adapter and the SCO is initiated by the SCO. Threefold API Adapter objects : –Execution State : to handle execution state : LMSInitialize and LMSFinish –State Management : to handle errors :LMSGetLastError, LMSGetErrorString, and LMSGetDiagnostic –Date Transfer : to transfer data to and from an LMS : LMSGetValue, LMSSetValue, and LMSCommit
IM Lab NCCU 33 Predefined Functions –LMSInitialize initialize (SCO required) –LMSFinish finish (SCO required) –LMSGetValueget a data model value from the LMS –LMSSetValue send a data model value to the LMS –LMSCommitwrite cached values (previously sent) to the LMS –LMSGetLastErrorget the return code for the last API call –LMSGetErrorStringget text description of the return code for the last API call –LMSGetDiagnosticget more vendor-specific information on the return code for the last API call
IM Lab NCCU 34 API Adapter State Transitions From SCORM 1.2 RTE, http://www.adlnet.orghttp://www.adlnet.org
IM Lab NCCU 35 Data Model Purpose of establishing a common data model : –to make sure that a defined set of information about SCOs can be tracked by different LMS environments. Access method : parameters in eight API Adapter functions Ex : –studentName = LMSGetValue(“cmi.core.student_name”);
IM Lab NCCU 37 Conclusion Future of web-based learning: “Object-oriented” concepts. Learning objects. Easy to retrieve and find learning objects: Learning services around the web! More adaptive and effective learning experiences for learners.